However, A. salmonicida ATCC 27013 and A. hydrophila ATCC 13136 were the ones showing the highest activity, the former exhibiting the best performance (Trelles et al., 2011). The importance of the presence of phosphate in the reaction for nucleoside phosphorolysis by pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase (PyNP) had been previously reported (Utagawa, 1999). Preliminary tests were Rucaparib chemical structure performed to optimize different phosphate concentrations, pH values,
and stirring speed. The results obtained were not significantly different (data not shown). Therefore, we continued using 30 mM potassium phosphate buffer at pH 7 and 200 r.p.m. as standard conditions. PyNP enzyme (EC 220.127.116.11), which is responsible for transglycosylation reaction, remains active at 60 °C (Trelles et al., 2005). Biosynthesis was performed at two temperatures (30 and 60 °C) using thymidine and 5-fluorouracil to evaluate the effect of other enzymes on substrates and products. When the reaction was carried out at 60 °C, 1.5 mM of 5-fluoro-2′-deoxyuridine were obtained in 1 h in the presence of secondary products, which could be due to the effect of enzymes called dehalogenases that have been found in some mesophylic microorganisms, whose optimum temperature is between 45 and 60 °C (Liu et al., 1994). When the reaction temperature was 30 °C, 2.0 mM of 5-fluoro-2′-deoxyuridine were gained in 1 h without secondary products, while at 3 h,
the amount of 5-fluoro-2′-deoxyuridine was not significantly modified (2.1 mM; Fig. 2). The highest conversion Smad inhibitor for floxuridine biosynthesis was achieved
at 30 °C. Biosynthesis of 5-fluorouridine, 2′-deoxyuridine, and 2′,3′-dideoxyuridine counterpart by A. salmonicida ATCC 27013 was evaluated PAK5 using different nucleosides as sugar donors. These assays were performed at 30 °C and pH 7 with excess of thymidine, uridine, 2′-deoxyuridine, 2′,3′-dideoxyuridine and 2′-deoxycytidine to prevent the reaction from being limited by the production of ribose, 2′-deoxy- or 2′,3′-dideoxyribose-1-phosphate (depending on the nucleoside donor used). Aeromonas salmonicida ATCC 27013 showed activity on uridine, thymidine, 2′-deoxyuridine and 2′-deoxycytidine. When 2′,3′-dideoxyuridine was assayed, no phosphorolytic activity was detected under the conditions tested. This microorganism was able to produce 1.0 mM (40%) of 5-fluorouridine when uridine was used. Biosynthesis of 5-fluoro-2′-deoxyuridine was 2.0 mM (80%) in 1 h when thymidine and 2′-deoxyuridine were evaluated as sugar donors and 1.9 mM (76%) when 2′-deoxycytidine was used (Table 1). Owing to the fact that higher conversion was obtained when thymidine and 2′-deoxyuridine were used, it was decided to continue working with thymidine (PyNP’s natural substrate) because it reduces the costs of a subsequent scale-up of this bioprocess. It has been widely reported that transglycosylation reactions are reversible (Pugmire & Ealich, 2002).