Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a multigene family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that degrade extracellular matrix components, whose expression is also regulated via Wnt/frizzled IWR-1 concentration signaling pathways [31, 32] and has been shown to correlate Screening Library manufacturer with invasive
potential of many different tumors . Expression of MMP2 is associated with bladder carcinoma cell invasion and metastasis [34–37]. The ability of as -APF to significantly inhibit MMP2 mRNA and protein expression in T24 cells also suggests that as -APF may be able to decrease the invasive potential of bladder carcinoma cells as well as inhibit their proliferation. Previous experiments performed by Jayoung Kim showed that p53 mediated the antiproliferative effects of native APF in both normal and T24 bladder carcinoma cells . The current study confirms this result by showing that synthetic as -APF also increases p53 protein
and mRNA expression in T24 cells, and it further demonstrates the role of the CKAP4 receptor in APF-induced p53 upregulation. Although the expression or activation of each of the cell proteins shown to be modified by APF can be regulated via Wnt/frizzled pathways, the specific alterations seen in Akt/GSK3β/β-catenin phosphorylation and BGB324 order the lack of an effect of APF on total cellular β-catenin levels suggest that this secreted frizzled-related peptide does not inhibit T24 bladder cell proliferation solely via inhibition of canonical Wnt/frizzled signaling. Whether the CKAP4 receptor can mediate transmembrane signaling, and/or whether it functions as a chaperone protein for cytoplasmic or nuclear translocation of APF, is unknown [27, 29]. However, the myriad effects of APF on cell protein activation and expression discovered in the current as well as previous studies [19, 21] indicate it may inhibit cell proliferation Rho by regulating
the activity of more than one signaling pathway or transcriptional regulatory factor. The ability of as -APF to inhibit GSK3β tyr216 phosphorylation without inhibiting GSK3β ser9 phosphorylation suggests it may also be a potent GSK3β enzyme inhibitor in T24 cells. Recent studies on natural compound GSK3β inhibitors suggest that this class of drugs may be promising for the regulation of certain cancers . Additional in vitro and in vivo studies with this intriguing natural frizzled 8-related glycopeptide are in progress to elucidate further its important cell regulatory function(s) as well as its potential as a therapeutic agent. Acknowledgements The authors thank Eunice Katz for her assistance with the preparation of this manuscript. This material is based upon work supported by the Office of Research and Development (Medical Research Service), Department of Veterans Affairs. References 1.