Initially, we designed a set of ZFNs to target the COP3 gene that

Initially, we designed a set of ZFNs to target the COP3 gene that encodes the light-activated ion channel channelrhodopsin-1. To evaluate the designed ZFNs, we constructed a model strain by inserting a non-functional aminoglycoside 3-phosphotransferase VIII (aphVIII)

selection marker interspaced with a short COP3 target sequence into the nuclear genome. Sulfobutylether-β-Cyclodextrin Upon co-transformation of this recipient strain with the engineered ZFNs and an aphVIII DNA template, we were able to restore marker activity and select paromomycin-resistant (Pm-R) clones with expressing nucleases. Of these Pm-R clones, 1% also contained a modified COP3 locus. In cases where cells were co-transformed with a modified COP3 template, the COP3 locus was specifically modified by homologous recombination between COP3 and the supplied template DNA. We anticipate that this ZFN technology will be useful for studying the functions of individual genes in Chlamydomonas.”
“Patients with spontaneous cervicocranial dissection (SCCD) may experience new or recurrent ischemic events despite antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy. Treatment with stent placement is an available option; however, the literature on patient selection is limited. Thus, identifying patients at

high risk for neurologic deterioration after SCCD is of critical importance. The present study examined the rate of neurologic deterioration in medically treated LBH589 supplier patients with SCCD and evaluated demographic, clinical, and radiologic AS1842856 concentration factors affecting this deterioration. We retrospectively identified consecutive patients with SCCD over a 7-year period from 3 medical institutions, and evaluated the relationships between demographic data, clinical characteristics, and angiographical findings and subsequent neurologic outcomes.

Neurologic deterioration was defined as transient ischemic attack (TIA), ischemic stroke, or death occurring during hospitalization or within 1 year of diagnosis. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to determine neurologic event-free survival up to 12 months. A total of 69 patients (mean age, 47.8 +/- 14 years; 45 males) with SCCD were included in the study. Eleven patients (16%) experienced in-hospital neurologic deterioration(TIA in 9, ischemicstroke in 1) or death(1 patient). An additional 8 patients developed neurologic deterioration within 1 year after discharge (TIA in 5, ischemic stroke in 2, and death in 1). The overall 1-year event-free survival rate was 72%. Women (P = .046), patients with involvement of both vertebral arteries (P = .02), and those with intracranial arterial involvement (P = .018) had significantly higher rates of neurologic deterioration.

Interventions: None Measurements and Main Results: Recent

\n\nInterventions: None.\n\nMeasurements and Main Results: Recent verbal and nonverbal memory and executive functions were assessed

using a psychometric test battery before and 1 week after cardiac surgery or at 1-week intervals in nonsurgical controls. Neurocognitive scores under the baseline condition were at least 1 z score (1 standard deviation) worse in surgical patients with compared without metabolic syndrome in all 3 cognitive areas (nonverbal and verbal recent memory and executive functions). Neurocognitive performance further deteriorated after surgery by at least 1 z score on 3 tests in the verbal memory modality (Immediate and Delayed Story Recall and Delayed Word List Recall). Overall cognitive performance G418 Microbiology inhibitor (composite z score) after surgery was significantly (p = 0.03) worse in metabolic syndrome patients compared click here with those who did not have the disorder.\n\nConclusions: The results indicate that short-term cognitive functions were more profoundly impaired in patients with metabolic syndrome undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass compared with their healthier counterparts. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Cell loss after transplantation is a major limitation for cell replacement approaches in regenerative medicine. To assess the survival kinetics of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes (CM) we generated

transgenic murine iPSC lines which, in addition to CM-specific expression of puromycin N-acetyl-transferase and enhanced green fluorescent Compound C datasheet protein (EGFP), also constitutively express firefly luciferase (FLuc) for bioluminescence (BL) in vivo

imaging. While undifferentiated iPSC lines generated by random integration of the transgene into the genome retained stable FLuc activity over many passages, the BL signal intensity was strongly decreased in purified iPS-CM compared to undifferentiated iPSC. Targeted integration of FLuc-expression cassette into the ROSA26 genomic locus using zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology strongly reduced transgene silencing in iPS-CM, leading to a several-fold higher BL compared to iPS-CM expressing FLuc from random genomic loci. To investigate the survival kinetics of iPS-CM in vivo, purified CM obtained from iPSC lines expressing FLuc from a random or the ROSA26 locus were transplanted into cryoinfarcted hearts of syngeneic mice. Engraftment of viable cells was monitored by BL imaging over 4 weeks. Transplanted iPS-CM were poorly retained in the myocardium independently of the cell line used. However, up to 8% of cells survived for 28 days at the site of injection, which was confirmed by immunohistological detection of EGFP-positive iPS-CM in the host tissue. Transplantation of iPS-CM did not affect the scar formation or capillary density in the periinfarct region of host myocardium.

Methods: Relevant studies were identified through PubMed and Web

Methods: Relevant studies were identified through PubMed and Web of Knowledge databases, studies included were those published up until to May 2012. Study quality was assessed according to the HuGENET guidelines and Strengthening the Reporting of Genetic Association (STREGA) recommendations. Results: Random-effects meta-analysis provided evidence that carriers of DPYD IVS14+1G>A are at higher risk of 3 degrees of overall grade

toxicity, hematological toxicity, mucositis and diarrhea. In addition, a strong association was also found between carriers of the DPYD 2846T allele and overall grade 3 toxicity or grade 3 diarrhea. An inverse linear relationship Selleck Bucladesine was found in prospective studies between the odds ratio of DPYD IVS14+1G>A and the incidence of overall grade 3 toxicity, indicating an higher impact in cohorts in which the incidence of severe toxicity was lower. Conclusion: The results of this meta-analysis confirm clinical validity of DPYD IVS14+1G>A and 2846A>T as risk factors for the development of severe toxicities following fluoropyrimidine treatment. Furthermore, the sensitivity and specificity estimates obtained could be useful in establishing the cost-effectiveness of testing for

DPYD variants. Original submitted 4 March 2013; Revision submitted 17 June 2013″
“3-Nitropropionic acid (NPA) produces degeneration of striatum and some neurological disturbances GSI-IX characteristic see more of Huntington’s disease in rodents and primates. We have shown that the flavonoid kaempferol largely reduced striatal damage induced by cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion in rats (Lopez-Sanchez et al. 2007). In this work, we report that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of kaempferol affords an efficient

protection against NPA-induced neurodegeneration in Wistar rats. We studied the effects of daily i.p. injections of 7, 14 and 21 mg of kaempferol/kg body weight during the NPA-treatment (25 mg/kg body weight/12 h i.p., for 5 days) on the neurological deficits, degeneration of rat striatum and oxidative stress markers. Intraperitoneal injections of 14-21 mg of kaempferol/kg body weight largely attenuated motor deficit and delayed mortality. The higher dose of kaempferol prevented the appearance of NPA-induced striatal lesions up to the end of treatment, as revealed by haematoxylin-eosin and TUNEL staining, and also NPA-induced oxidative stress, because it blocked the fall of reduced glutathione and the increase of protein nitrotyrosines in NPA-treated rats. It was found that striatal degeneration was associated with calpains activation and a large inactivation of creatine kinase, which were also prevented when the higher doses of kaempferol were administered.

Recommendations are subsequently incorporated by individual physi

Recommendations are subsequently incorporated by individual physicians. The fundamental assumption that drives this paradigm is that adopting evidence-based recommendations and/or treatment guidelines will result in improved outcomes. Unfortunately, to date, the paradigm does not have an effective feedback Lapatinib chemical structure loop that would then evaluate whether the changes did, in fact, improve outcomes. PURPOSE: To explore the process of clinical audits as a mechanism by which to provide a feedback loop to evaluate the results of spinal surgery on an individual basis and whether those results can be improved. STUDY DESIGN: Review article, discussion. METHODS: A literature review of the current data regarding clinical audits was performed,

and a discussion of how they may apply to spinal surgery is offered. RESULTS: Clinical audits have been used outside the United States, particularly in the United Kingdom, to fulfill this function. A clinical

audit would allow a practicing spinal surgeon to examine his or her individual experience and determine if it is achieving the expected outcome based on published results. In the most important feature of a clinical audit, the reaudit, if an individual’s results are found click here to be inconsistent with published results, it presents an opportunity to identify if there are reconcilable differences from which potential improvements can be made. Effectively, this “closes the loop” between EBM and actual clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: Documenting improved outcomes through the audit process can impact spinal care in several ways. Patients would receive a clear message that their doctors are interested in improving care. Hospitals will use the information to optimize treatment algorithms. Finally, insurers might make the audit process more tenable or attractive by indicating a physician’s voluntary

participation as a criterion to be a preferred provider. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Immune complex-mediated complement activation through the classic pathway plays buy PND-1186 a key role in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis (LN). C4d deposition in renal tissue reflects the prognosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of the current study is to investigate the pathogenesis and clinicopathologic significance of glomerular C4d deposition in LN. We retrospectively analyzed clinical and histopathological data of 20 SLE patients with renal biopsy-proven LN and 10 non-SLE renal biopsy samples as control. LN biopsies showed varying degrees of glomerular C4d staining associated with immune complex deposits, IgG (p = 0.015), C1q (p = 0.032) and C3 (p = 0.049). 7 LN biopsies had all of C4d, C1q and C3 deposits in their glomeruli, indicative of the activation of the classical pathway, whereas 2 LN biopsies had C4d and C3 deposits without accompanying C1q deposits, indicating the activation of the lectin pathway. Glomerular C4d deposition was correlated with the LN subtype (p smaller than 0.

Besides, 502H plays a

key role on oligomerization of 1b R

Besides, 502H plays a

key role on oligomerization of 1b RdRp, while 2a RdRps which have the amino acid S at position 502 are monomers. This oligomer formed by 502H was disrupted both by high salt and Triton X-100. On the contrary, HCV 1b RdRp completely lost fidelity in the presence of 0.02% Triton X-100, which suggests that caution should be exercised while using Triton X-100 in anti-HCV RdRp drug screening tests. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Inferring population admixture from genetic data and quantifying it is a difficult but crucial task in evolutionary and conservation biology. Unfortunately state-of-the-art probabilistic approaches are computationally demanding. Effectively exploiting the computational power of modern multiprocessor systems can thus have a positive impact selleckchem to Monte Carlo-based simulation of admixture modeling. A novel parallel approach is briefly described and promising results on its message passing interface (MPI)-based C++ implementation are reported.”
“Background: Our understanding of the Elafibranor solubility dmso pathogenic role of IgE in atopic dermatitis is incomplete. We asked whether blocking free IgE would alter the course of the disease.\n\nPatients and Methods: We administered either omalizumab, a humanized monoclonal mouse antibody

against IgE, or placebo subcutaneously for 16 weeks to 20 atopic dermatitis patients and measured immunological and clinical disease parameters.\n\nResults: Omalizumab (I) reduced free serum IgE, (II) lowered surface IgE and Fc epsilon RI expression on different peripheral blood mononuclear cells, (III) reduced the saturation

of Fc epsilon RI with IgE, (IV) increased the number of free Fc epsilon RI and (V) lowered the number of IgE+, but not of Fc epsilon RI+ cells in skin. The in vivo relevance of these results is evidenced by the increase in the threshold allergen concentration required to give a type I hypersensitivity reaction in the titrated skin test. While not significantly altering the Selleck C59 wnt clinical disease parameters, omalizumab treatment led to an improvement of the atopy patch test results in single patients, i.e. an eczematous reaction upon epicutaneous allergen challenge.\n\nConclusions: The interference with immediate and delayed type skin tests may imply that a therapeutic benefit of omalizumab treatment, if present at all, would be seen in patients with acute rather than chronic forms of the disease.”
“Placental transmogrification is a very rare Lung disease, where the alveoli resemble the chorionic villi of placenta, and this change is a characteristic finding. A 31-year-old female patient presented with cough and dyspnea that had begun 2 weeks prior to admission. Along with giant bulla found in the left upper lung field, subsegmental consolidation was also identified in the lingular segment on plain chest radiograph and CT scan.

Sensors and transducers signal to numerous downstream cellular ef

Sensors and transducers signal to numerous downstream cellular effectors which function primarily by substrate posttranslational modifications including phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation and ubiquitylation. In particular, the past several years

have provided important insight into the role of chromatin remodeling and histones-specific modifications to control DNA damage detection, signaling and repair. This review summarizes recently identified factors that influence this complex process and the repair of DNA DSBs in eukaryotic cells.”
“Background: Influenza is one of the oldest and deadliest infectious diseases known to man. Reassorted FK228 strains of the virus pose the greatest risk to both human and animal health and have been associated with all pandemics of the past century, with the possible exception of the 1918 pandemic, resulting in tens of millions of deaths. We have developed and tested new computer algorithms, FluShuffle and FluResort,

which enable reassorted viruses to be identified by the most rapid and direct means possible. These algorithms enable reassorted influenza, and other, viruses to be rapidly identified to allow prevention strategies and treatments to be more efficiently implemented.\n\nResults: The FluShuffle and FluResort algorithms were tested selleck with both experimental and simulated mass spectra of whole virus digests. FluShuffle considers different combinations of viral protein identities that match the mass spectral data using a Gibbs sampling algorithm employing a mixed protein Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. FluResort utilizes those identities to calculate the weighted distance of each across two or more different phylogenetic trees constructed through viral protein sequence alignments. Each weighted

mean distance value is normalized by conversion to a Z-score to establish a reassorted strain.\n\nConclusions: The new FluShuffle and FluResort algorithms can correctly identify the origins of influenza viral proteins and the number of reassortment events required to produce the strains from the high resolution Crenigacestat mass spectral data of whole virus proteolytic digestions. This has been demonstrated in the case of constructed vaccine strains as well as common human seasonal strains of the virus. The algorithms significantly improve the capability of the proteotyping approach to identify reassorted viruses that pose the greatest pandemic risk.”
“The emergence of an influenza pandemic is of great concern globally. It is, therefore, necessary to have a better understanding of the adaptation of influenza A viruses to humans. The mutation patterns affecting host tropism may provide information on the mechanisms and determinants of the host barrier. The work by Miotto et al.

“Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, mot

“Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated VS-6063 mouse with increased melanin,

reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate

dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis”
“AimsThe purpose of this study was to compare the immunohistochemical staining profiles of PAX8-polyclonal, PAX8-monoclonal, PAX5-monoclonal and PAX6-monoclonal antibodies in several histological types of primary thoracic and XR9576 thyroid tumours. In addition, we analysed PAX8 mRNA expression by using in-situ hybridization. Methods and resultsWe compared polyclonal PAX8 and monoclonal PAX8, PAX5 and PAX6 antibodies in 962 samples (687 lung carcinomas, 40 malignant pleural mesotheliomas, 138 thymic tumours and 97 thyroid tumours) Dibutyryl-cAMP datasheet using the tissue microarray technique. Among thyroid tumours, the monoclonal and polyclonal PAX8 antibodies showed a high positive rate (98.0%). Of 167 polyclonal PAX8 antibody-positive tumours, except for thyroid tumours, 54 cases tested positive for PAX5 and/or

PAX6 (31 lung carcinomas and 23 thymic tumours). No PAX8 mRNA expression was detected using RNAscope (in-situ hybridization technique) other than in thyroid tumours. A portion of polyclonal PAX8 antibody-positive tumours showed cross-reactivity for PAX5 or PAX6 protein. ConclusionsMonoclonal PAX8 antibody showed high specificity to thyroid tumours and was superior to the polyclonal antibody.”
“Background: Studies report frequent micronutrient deficiencies after bariatric surgery, but less is known about micronutrient levels of pregnant women after bariatric surgery. Objective: To prospectively evaluate micronutrient levels and supplement intake in pregnancy following bariatric surgery. Design: A multicenter prospective cohort study including women with restrictive or malabsorptive types of bariatric surgery. Nutritional deficiencies, together with supplement intake, were screened during pregnancy. Results: The total population included 18 women in the restrictive and 31 in the malabsorptive group. Most micronutrients were depleted and declined significantly during pregnancy. The proportion of women with low vitamin A and B-1 levels increased to respectively 58 and 17% at delivery (P=0.

The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive

The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive Stem Cell Compound Library mw value and negative predictive value for MRI were 56, 93, 60, and 92, respectively, while predicting

early stage disease. There were three cases of adnexal metastases, where the tumour had already spread to uterine serosa. Two cases had poorly differentiated and one had moderately differentiated tumour.\n\nConclusions The risk of adnexal metastasis is less than 1% in clinically early stage disease and highly unlikely if MRI suggests that the disease is confined to the inner half of the myometrium and low-grade disease. MRI has a high specificity and negative predictive value in endometrial cancer staging with reduced sensitivity of detecting cervical, adnexal and lymphatic spread. We suggest that vaginal hysterectomy might be a safe alternative to laparotomy in the treatment of radiological early stage disease in medically compromised elderly patients. The possibility of converting a vaginal approach to an abdominal route should be always taken into consideration.”
“Effective seed dispersal, combining both dispersal and postdispersal (establishment) processes, determines population dynamics and colonization ability in plants. According to the Janzen-Connell (JC) model, high mortality near the mother plant shifts the offspring establishment distribution farther

away from the mother plant relative to the seed dispersal distribution. Yet, extending this prediction to the distribution of mature (reproductive) offspring remains a challenge for long-living plants. To address

this challenge, we selected an isolated natural Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) population SC79 concentration in Mt. Pithulim (Israel), which expanded from five ancestor trees in the beginning of the 20th century into similar to 2000 trees today. Using nine microsatellite markers, we assigned parents to trees established during the early stages of population expansion. To elucidate the effect of the distance from the mother plant on postdispersal survival, we compared the effective seed dispersal kernel, based on the distribution of mother-offspring distances, with the seed dispersal kernel, based on simulations of a mechanistic wind dispersal model. R406 ic50 We found that the mode of the effective dispersal kernel is shifted farther away than the mode of the seed dispersal kernel, reflecting increased survival with increasing distance from the mother plant. The parentage analysis demonstrated a highly skewed reproductive success and a strong directionality in effective dispersal corresponding to the wind regime. We thus provide compelling evidence that JC effects act also on offspring that become reproductive and persist as adults for many decades, a key requirement in assessing the role of postdispersal processes in shaping population and community dynamics.”
“Microsatellites represent one of the most commonly used genetic markers for population genetic studies.

Materials/Methods: This retrospective study includes 24 patie

\n\nMaterials/Methods: This retrospective study includes 24 patients with stage IB-IIIB gastric cancer consecutively treated from 2001-2010. All underwent surgery

followed by adjuvant chemoradiation. Concurrent chemotherapy consisted of 5-FU/leucovorin (n = 21), epirubicin/cisplatin/5FU (n = 1), or none (n = 2). IMRT was utilized in 12 patients and 3DCRT in 12 patients. For both groups, the target volume included the tumor bed, anastomosis, gastric stump, and regional lymphatics.\n\nResults: Median follow-up for the entire cohort was 19 months (range 0.4-8.5 years), and 49 months (0.5-8.5 years) in surviving patients. The 3DCRT group received a median check details dose of 45 Gy, and the IMRT group received a median dose of 50.4 Gy (p = 0.0004). For the entire cohort, 3-year overall survival (OS) was 40% and Nirogacestat clinical trial 3-year disease free survival (DFS) was 41%. OS and DFS did not differ significantly between the groups. Acute toxicity was similar. Between 3DCRT and IMRT groups, during radiotherapy, median weight lost (3.2 vs. 3.3 kg, respectively; p = 0.47) and median percent weight loss were similar (5.0% vs. 4.3%, respectively; p = 0.43). Acute grade 2 toxicity was experienced by 8 patients receiving 3DCRT and 11 receiving IMRT (p = 0.32); acute grade 3 toxicity occurred in 1 patient receiving 3DCRT and none receiving IMRT (p

= 1.0). No patients in either cohort experienced late grade 3 toxicity, including renal or gastrointestinal toxicity. At last follow up, the median EPZ004777 increase in creatinine was 0.1 mg/dL in the IMRT group and 0.1 mg/dL in the 3DCRT group (p = 0.78).\n\nConclusion: This study demonstrates that adjuvant chemoradiation for gastric cancer with IMRT to 50.4 Gy was well-tolerated and compared similarly in toxicity with 3DCRT to 45 Gy.”
“The taxonomic status of B. terricola Kirby and B. occidentalis Greene has long been questioned. However recent COI gene sequence data suggests that B. occidentalis and B. terricola do represent good biological species. In this paper we test the hypothesis that B. terricola and B. occidentalis are conspecific by using independent

morphometric and genetic (RAPD) data. For comparison we also analyzed one consubgeneric species, B. moderatus (now B. crytptarum), and one non-consubgeneric species B. (Pyrobombus) perplexus. Discriminant function analysis of wing morphometric data correctly classified over 85% of the specimens of B. occidentalis and B. terricola. Analysis of molecular variance of the RAPD data showed a significant difference (P < 0.0001) between B. occidentalis and B. terricola. Colour variation from laboratory reared colonies of B. occidentalis suggests that probably two gene locus inheritance is likely but that hybridization as the sole basis for the colour variation seen in the nominate taxon B. occidentalis can be excluded.

Methods/design: This study (a prospective, cluster-randomized

\n\nMethods/design: This study (a prospective, cluster-randomized controlled clinical

trial) will be conducted across selected regions in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Fifty GPs will be randomized to either the ‘intervention’ or ‘control’ arm, with each GP recruiting 10 patients (aged >= 65 with AF); target sample size is 500 patients. GPs in the intervention arm will use CARAT during routine patient consultations to: assess risk factors for stroke, bleeding and medication misadventure; quantify the risk/benefit ratio of antithrombotic treatment, identify the recommended therapy, and decide on the treatment course, for an individual patient. CARAT will be applied by the GP at baseline and repeated at 12 months to identify any changes

to treatment requirements. At baseline, the participant (patients and SBE-β-CD concentration GPs) characteristics will be recorded, as well as relevant practice and clinical parameters. Patient follow up will occur at 1, 6, and 12 months via telephone interview to identify changes to therapy, medication side effects, or clinical events.\n\nDiscussion: This project tests the utility of a novel decision support tool (CARAT) in improving the use of preventative therapy to reduce the significant burden of stroke. Importantly, it targets the interface of patient care (general practice), addresses the at-risk population, evaluates clinical outcomes, and offers a tool that may be sustainable via integration into prescribing software and primary this website care services. GP support and guidance in identifying at risk patients for the appropriate selection of therapy is widely acknowledged. This trial will evaluate the impact of CARAT on the prescription of antithrombotic Belnacasan cost therapy, its longer-term impact on clinical outcomes including stroke and bleeding, and clinicians perceived utility of CARAT in practice.”
“Trypanosoma cruzi infection triggers substantial production of nitric oxide (NO), which has been shown to have protective and toxic effects on the host’s

immune system. Sensing of trypomastigotes by phagocytes activates the inducible NO-synthase (NOS2) pathway, which produces NO and is largely responsible for macrophage-mediated killing of T. cruzi. NO is also responsible for modulating virtually all steps of innate and adaptive immunity. However, NO can also cause oxidative stress, which is especially damaging to the host due to increased tissue damage. The cytokines IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, as well as chemokines, are strong inducers of NOS2 and are produced in large amounts during T. cruzi acute infection. Conversely, TGF-beta and IL-10 negatively regulate NO production. Here we discuss the recent evidence describing the mechanisms by which NO is able to exert its antimicrobial and immune regulatory effects, the mechanisms involved in the oxidative stress response during infection and the implications of NO for the development of therapeutic strategies against T. cruzi.