Since the challenge of determining which of

Since the challenge of determining which of learn more many technologies to fund is one that healthcare systems have faced since their inception, an analysis of actual processes, criticisms confronted and approaches used to manage them may serve to guide the development of an ‘evidence-informed’ decision-making framework for improving the acceptability of decisions.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a technology funding decision-making framework informed by the experiences of multiple healthcare systems and the views of senior-level decision makers in Canada.

Methods: A 1-day, facilitated workshop was held with 16 senior-level healthcare

decision makers in Canada. International examples of actual technology funding decision-making processes were presented. Participants discussed key elements of these processes, debated strengths and weaknesses and highlighted unresolved challenges. The findings were used to construct a technology decision-making framework

on which participant feedback was then sought. Its relevance, content, structure and feasibility were further assessed through key informant interviews with ten additional senior-level decision makers.

Results: Six main issues surrounding current processes were raised: (i) timeliness; (ii) methodological considerations; (iii) interpretations Nirogacestat of ‘value for money’; (iv) explication of social values; (v) stakeholder engagement; and (vi) ‘accountability for reasonableness’. While no attempt was made to force consensus on what should constitute each of these, there was widespread agreement on questions that must be addressed through a ‘robust’ process. These questions, grouped and ordered into three phases, became the final framework.

Conclusions: A decision-making framework informed by processes in other jurisdictions and the views of local decision makers was developed. Pilot testing underway in one Canadian

jurisdiction will identify any further Small Molecule Compound Library refinements needed to optimize its usefulness.”
“Effects of atomic oxygen (AO) and ultraviolet (UV) on a polymer film with surface energy of 8.0 mJ m(-2) derived from poly(1H, 1H-perfluorooctyl methylacrylate) were investigated by contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscope. The film was exposed to AO with a flux of 6.73 x 10(15) atoms cm(-2) s(-1) and UV with intensity of 15.8 mW cm(-2) at wavelength of 200-450 nm, respectively. It is found that AO and UV irradiation resulted in the reduction of film thickness, change of wettability, and increase of surface energy, and AO exhibited more serious effects than UV on the fluorinated polymer film. Reduced rate of thickness of the film was almost proportional to the AO exposure time. After exposed to AO and UV irradiation, the surface energy of the film increased to 17.3 mJ m(-2) and 11.0 mJ m(-2), respectively. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Copyright r 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd “
“Study Design Pro

Copyright r 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Study Design. Prospective cohort study.

Objective. To determine: (1) patterns of bone graft volumetric changes, (2) whether different fusion methods, numbers of fusion segments, and range of fusion affect bone graft volumetric changes, and (3) whether these changes affect clinical and functional find more outcomes after surgery.

Summary of Background Data. Bone graft volumetric change is likely to importantly determine successful

fusion. However, despite the importance of graft volumetric changes, little information is available on bone graft volumetric changes after instrumented fusion.

Methods. Thirty-one patients with lumbosacral disease who underwent decompression and instrumented spinal fusion using autologous iliac bone graft were included in this study. Selleck MLN8237 Patients were classified into 3 major categories, based on fusion methods, the number of fusion segments, and range of fusion, namely, (1) the posterolateral fusion and the posterior lumbar interbody fusion groups, (2) the one-segment fusion and 2-segment fusion groups, and (3) the floating fusion (fusion to L5) and fixed fusion (fusion to S1) groups. To evaluate bone graft volumetric changes, computed tomography scans were performed. Group graft volumes were compared, and

Oswestry Disability Index and visual analogue scales scores were obtained to evaluate clinical and functional outcomes.

Results. Initial graft volumes had decreased by 8% at 6 months and by 26.3% between 6 and 12 months after surgery (P = 0.0025, P = 0.0001, respectively). Mean group bone graft volume losses at 5 years after surgery were not significantly different between the posterolateral fusion and posterior lumbar

interbody fusion groups or the floating fusion and fixed fusion groups (P = 0.722, P = 0.076, respectively). However, mean bone graft volume loss was I-BET-762 molecular weight significant greater in the 2-segment fusion group than in the one-segment fusion group (P = 0.007). No statistical difference in visual analogue scales and Oswestry Disability Index score decreases were observed between the groups. Mean graft bone volume loss during 5 years increased with initial graft volume (r = 0.525, P = 0.003). However, ratios of volume loss over 5 years versus initial graft volume decreased with initial graft volume (r = -0.459, P = 0.011).

Conclusion. One-third of initial bone grafts were found to be resorbed over 5 years and the majority of this resorption was found to occur between 6 months and 1 year after instrumented lumbar/lumbosacral fusion. Furthermore, bone graft volumetric changes were not affected by fusion methods or ranges of fusion, and did not affect clinical or functional outcomes. Although bone graft volume loss was found to increase with initial graft volume, larger bone grafts were found to result in a larger fusion mass.

Results-There were no differences between the 2 groups in ground

Results-There were no differences between the 2 groups in ground reaction forces, thigh circumference, or exertion (mean workout speed) over time or at any individual time point. However, both groups improved significantly over time for all outcome measures.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Providing carprofen to dogs during concentrated rehabilitation after lateral

fabellar suture stabilization did not improve hind limb function, range of motion, or thigh circumference, nor did it decrease perceived exertion, compared learn more with control dogs. Carprofen was not a compulsory component of a physical therapy regimen after lateral fabellar suture stabilization. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2011239:75-80)”
“Some Egyptian LY294002 PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor plants were screened against highly pathogenic avian influenza strain H5N1 using plaque inhibition assay in Madin-Darby canine kidney. The results indicated that the extracts of Red Sea grass Thallasodendron ciliatum possessed potent antiviral

activity (100% inhibition at the concentration of 1gmL(-1)). The bioactivity-guided fractionations led to the isolation of a new diglyceride ester (1) along with asebotin (2) for the first time from the plant. The two isolates showed reduction of virus titre by 67.26% and 53.81% inhibition at concentration of 1ngmL(-1), respectively.”
“By investigating angular dependence of resistance and applying the Boltzmann distribution to the anisotropy dispersion of the magnetization in an exchange-biased pinned layer, we quantized the intrinsic anisotropy HDAC phosphorylation dispersion sigma(gamma) of spin valves. The sigma(gamma) was estimated to be 0.412 degrees for the as-deposited spin valve and 0.183 degrees for the ion-irradiated spin valve. This indicates that the dispersion indeed narrowed when the spin valve was field-annealed or irradiated by 550 eV hydrogen ions under a magnetic field, which is consistent with our previous attribution

to the significant improvement in both exchange anisotropy and giant magnetoresistance of spin valves thus treated. Our methodology can be applied for other spin devices characterized by angular dependence of resistance to determine useful device properties such as the intrinsic anisotropy dispersion and the exchange bias of the exchange-biased reference layer. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3072776]“
“Objective-To evaluate degree of sedation and cardiovascular, respiratory, acid-base excess, and electrolyte variables in response to IM administration of dexmedetomidine or dexmedetomidine with atropine.

Design-Randomized crossover study.

Animals-5 healthy 1- to 2-year-old sexually intact male Treeing Walker Coonhounds.

Procedures-Dogs were instrumented with catheters placed in the dorsal pedal artery and lateral saphenous vein. All dogs received dexmedetomidine (10 mu g/kg [4.

Our aim was to determine whether we could safely increase the dur

Our aim was to determine whether we could safely increase the duration of catheter insertion time from our standard practice of seven days to 14 days, to assess CH5183284 chemical structure the influence of the antimicrobial impregnated catheter on the incidence of CRI, and to elucidate the epidemiology and risks

of CRI. One hundred and eighteen critically ill patients were included in the study which spanned 34 951.5 catheter hours (3.99 catheter years). It was found that antimicrobial catheters did not provide any significant benefit over standard catheters, which the authors feel can safely be left in place for up to 14 days with appropriate infection control measures. The most common source of CRI was the skin. The administration of parenteral nutrition and the site of catheter insertion (internal jugular vein vs subclavian vein) were not noted to be risk factors for CRI. There was no clinical evidence of thrombotic

complication in either of learn more the study groups. This study offers direction for the use of CVCs in critically ill patients and addresses many of the controversies that exist.”
“Methods: The influence of chronic administration of low doses of aliskiren (5 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for a period of eight weeks on cardiac electrophysiological and structural remodeling was investigated in transgenic (TGR)(mRen-2) 27 rats. Cardiac and plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) levels were determined by ELISA before and after administration of the drug. Moreover, histological, electrophysiological and echocardiographic studies were performed in controls and at the end of eight weeks of aliskiren administration.

Results: 1) The cardiac Ang II levels were significantly Selleck AL3818 reduced while the plasma Ang II levels were not significantly decreased in rats treated with low doses of aliskiren; 2) echocardographic studies showed a decrease of left ventricle diameter (LVD), left ventricle posterior wall thickness (LVPW), left ventricle end diastolic volume (LVEDV) and increased ejection fraction (EF); 3) aliskiren improved the impulse propagation, increased the cardiac refractoriness and reduced the incidence of triggered activity; 4) perivascular

and interstitial fibrosis were greatly reduced, which explains the increase in conduction velocity. All these effects of aliskiren were found independently of blood pressure, suggesting that the beneficial effect of aliskiren was related to an inhibition of the local cardiac renin angiotensin system; and 5) the effect of mechanical stretch on action potential duration, conduction velocity and spontaneous rhythmicity was changed by aliskiren, supporting the hypothesis presented here that the beneficial effect of the drug on cardiac remodeling is related to a decreased sensitivity of cardiac muscle to mechanical stress.”
“Only 10 cases of patients with isolated basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the palms and soles have been published. We describe a patient with an isolated basal cell carcinoma of the palm.

Nevertheless, no equivalent observation for the SNRI duloxetine h

Nevertheless, no equivalent observation for the SNRI duloxetine has been made to date.

Method: Sixteen patients diagnosed with MDD and an actual major depressive episode according to DSM-IV criteria and 16 healthy controls entered a 6-week trial with duloxetine 60 mg/day. All subjects (n = 32) were assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and were monitored for IL-6 levels both at baseline and at week 6. Blood samples ATM/ATR inhibitor drugs for IL-6 levels were evaluated by ELISA.

Results: After 6 weeks of treatment,

the mean total scores for HAM-D declined both in the depressed and control groups, while IL-6 modification showed an opposite trend both in depressed (12.38 +/- 19.80 to 19.73 +/- 18.94 pg/mL) and control subjects (12.25 +/- 21.12 to 17.63 +/- 20.44 pg/mL), as did YMRS (ns), Ferroptosis inhibitor although none of the

subjects switched to (hypo) mania. Of note, IL-6 levels increased significantly only in the responders subgroup (n = 9; P = 0.012).

Conclusion: The small sample size and weak design of this study limit the validity of our results, which should be regarded as preliminary only. Nonetheless, the trend of increasing IL-6 levels observed in responder patients treated with duloxetine should prompt further controlled, extended studies with larger samples, with the specific aim of better assessing a putative differential role of norepinephrinergic antidepressant stimulation of serotonergic reuptake inhibition in determining modifications

in IL-6 levels. Ideally, more accurate replication studies may contribute to further understanding of selleck chemical the complex interaction of mood, antidepressant response, and the immune system.”
“Background Recent studies have demonstrated that cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease are associated with increased risk of graft loss and death in high-risk (donor CMV seropositive/recipient CMV seronegative) liver transplant recipients (LTR) despite effective antiviral chemoprophylaxis. Predictors of CMV infection and disease in this important population are incompletely defined. Methods A retrospective cohort study of 227 high-risk first LTR who received primary anti-CMV chemoprophylaxis during the first 100days after transplant was performed. A large number of patient, donor, operative, and post-transplant potential risk factors were collected. Associations of potential risk factors for CMV infection or disease that occurred during the first year after transplant were assessed using Cox regression models. After Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing, P-values 0.00125 (associations with CMV infection) and 0.00122 (associations with CMV disease) were considered as statistically significant.

A total of 5312 fragments were produced by these 46 primer pairs

A total of 5312 fragments were produced by these 46 primer pairs. Species-specific markers were identified for all six Swertia species (131 selleck for S. chirayita, 19 for S. angustifolia, 181 for S. bimaculata, 47 for S. ciliata, 94 for S. cordata, and 272 for S. alata).

These AFLP fingerprints of the Swertia species could be used to authenticate drugs made with Swertia spp and to resolve adulteration-related problems faced by the commercial users of these herbs.”
“Background: Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare and heterogeneous disease with a higher prevalence in African Americans (AAs) in the USA. The clinical features and prognosis of PPCM in AAs have not been sufficiently characterized.

Methods: We studied 52 AA patients with PPCM find more and compared clinical characteristics and outcome with those of 104 white patients.


AA patients were significantly younger (26 +/- 7 vs 30 +/- 6 years; P < .001), had a higher prevalence of gestational hypertension (61% vs 41%; P = .03), and were diagnosed more commonly postpartum rather then antepartum (83% vs 64%; P = .03). The rate of left ventricular (LV) recovery (LV ejection fraction [LVEF] >= 50%) was significantly lower in AAs (40% vs 61%; P = .02). AA women also had a larger LV end-diastolic diameter (57 +/- 10 vs 51 +/- 6 mm; P = .004) as well as lower LVEF (40% +/- 16.7% vs 46% +/- 14%; P = .002) at the last follow-up. Moreover, AA patients had a significantly higher incidence of the combined end points of mortality and cardiac transplantation (P = .03) and showed a strong trend (P = .09) for increased mortality.


AA patients with PPCM in the USA have a different clinical profile and worse prognosis compared with white patients. Further research to evaluate potentially correctable causes for these differences is warranted. (J Cardiac Fail 2013;19:214-218)”
“dc magnetization and ac susceptibility measurements were carried out in a polycrystalline compound with composition Pr0.7Sr0.3CoO3. Low-field dc magnetization and frequency-dependent ac susceptibility results suggest a cluster-glass-like transition Linsitinib chemical structure at 165 K. When the sample was cooled in a static magnetic field, shifts in the magnetic hysteresis loop were observed at 5 K. Shifts in the hysteresis loop are the typical manifestation of exchange bias (EB) effect. Training effect observed at 5 K is one of the supportive experimental evidences of EB effect which could be satisfactorily analyzed by the relaxation model. EB effect is suggested due to the pinning effect at the ferromagnetic/spin-glass interface in a spontaneously phase separated cluster-glass compound.”
“Purpose: To investigate whether thin-section axial double inversion-recovery (DIR) brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 3.

Results: After 6 mo of supplementation, the intake of zinc, compa

Results: After 6 mo of supplementation, the intake of zinc, compared with intake of placebo, increased the concentrations of plasma zinc and decreased the concentrations of plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin (IL)-6, macrophage chemoattractant

protein 1 (MCP-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-I), secretory phospholipase selleck A2, and malondialdehyde and hydroxyalkenals (MDA+HAE) in elderly subjects. Regression analysis showed that changes in concentrations of plasma zinc were inversely associated with changes in concentrations of plasma hsCRP, MCP-1, VCAM-1, and MDA+HAE after 6 mo of supplementation. In cell culture studies, we showed that zinc decreased the generation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1 beta, VCAM-1, and MDA+HAE and the activation of nuclear

transcription factor kappa B and increased antiinflammatory proteins A20 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha in human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells and human aortic endothelial cells compared with zinc-deficient cells.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that zinc may have a protective effect in atherosclerosis because of its antiinflammatory and antioxidant functions. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:1634-41.”
“Paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes are rare disorders that have potentially devastating effects on the developing brain. Recently, there has been increased interest in possible immunotherapy for these disorders. Recognition of paraneoplastic syndromes

in children may lead to early detection and treatment of the GS-9973 datasheet pediatric cancer and may diminish the neurologic damage that is the major source of morbidity in children with successfully treated tumors. This article reviews the presenting symptoms, immunology, long-term sequelae, and management options for paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes, focusing on those most commonly Selleckchem Autophagy inhibitor reported in children: opsoclonus-myoclonus ataxia, limbic encephalitis, and anti-NMDAR encephalitis. The child neurologist plays an important role in recognizing these disorders, initiating a tumor search, and directing ongoing treatment and management of neurologic symptoms after oncologic treatment is complete. Given the rarity of these conditions, multisite collaborative efforts are needed to develop standardized approaches to characterization and treatment.”
“Background: The 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee to Reevaluate Gestational Weight Gain Guidelines concluded that there were too few data to inform weight-gain guidelines by obesity severity. Therefore, the committee recommended a single range, 5-9 kg at term, for all obese women.

Objective: We explored associations between gestational weight gain and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births, large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births, spontaneous preterm births (sPTBs), and medically indicated preterm births (iPTBs) among obese women who were stratified by severity of obesity.

Then the functionalized polysiloxane was submitted to complex wit

Then the functionalized polysiloxane was submitted to complex with 1, 10-phenanthroline and lanthanide ions (Tb(3 broken vertical bar) and Eu(3 broken vertical bar) ions, respectively) to obtain two luminescent functionalized polysiloxanes. The molecular energy transfer process takes place within these systems in terms of sensitized functions of 1, 10-phenanthroline. Narrow-width green and red emissions were achieved. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 1884-1888, 2012″

many eukaryotes, spliceosomal introns are able to influence the level and site of gene expression. selleck inhibitor The mechanism of this Intron Mediated Enhancement (IME) has not yet been elucidated, but regulation of gene expression is likely to occur at several steps during and after transcription. Different introns have different intrinsic enhancing properties, but the determinants of these differences remain unknown. Recently, an algorithm called IMEter, which is able to predict the IME potential of introns without direct testing, has been proposed. A computer program was developed for Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa L.), but was

only tested experimentally in Arabidopsis by measuring the enhancement effect on GUS expression of different introns inserted within otherwise identical plasmids. To test the IMEter potential in rice, a vector bearing the upstream regulatory sequence of a rice beta-tubulin gene (OsTub6) fused to the GUS reporter gene was used. The enhancing intron interrupting the OsTub6

5′-UTR was precisely replaced by seven other introns carrying different features. GUS expression level in transiently transformed rice calli does not significantly correlate with the calculated IMEter score. It was also found that enhanced GUS expression was mainly due to a strong increase in the mRNA steady-state level and that mutations at the splice recognition sites almost completely abolished the enhancing effect. Splicing also appeared to be required for IME in Arabidopsis cell cultures, CX-6258 order where failure of the OsTub6 5′ region to drive high level gene expression could be rescued by replacing the poorly spliced rice intron with one from Arabidopsis.”
“Acrylic acid was crosslinked with N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide followed by a reaction with hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) to form a new hydrogel, Gel (2). Water absorbance rate and retention of Gel (2) were characterized. At the same time, factors affecting absorbance rate such as pH, temperature, and ions concentration were studied. The rate decreased with decreasing pH and increasing ions concentration, whereas increased with raising temperature. The effect of the hydrogel on bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) viability and growth rate was determined. Gel (2) has achieved a 5 log reduction on both E. coli and S. aureus in 2 h while no cells were detected after 3 h in case of S.

To evaluate the specificity of the sign for KD diagnosis, patient

To evaluate the specificity of the sign for KD diagnosis, patients aged 2

years or younger who were diagnosed as having respiratory syncytial virus or rotavirus infection using a commercial rapid test and who required hospitalization were observed.

Results: Of the 15,524 KD patients with a history of BCG vaccination, 7745 (49.9%) had redness or crust formation at the BCG inoculation site. This was observed in more than 70% of complete KD patients aged 3 to 20 months. Of these patients, the proportion with this sign in the group whose first day of hospital visit was within 1 to 4 days from the onset was significantly larger than that of the other patients groups (5-9 or 10 + days) (52.1%, Selleck PD-L1 inhibitor P < 0.001). Among the patients with respiratory syncytial virus or rotavirus infection, none showed these changes at BCG inoculation site.

Conclusions: Redness or crust formation at the BCG inoculation site is a useful diagnostic sign for KD GSK2126458 supplier among children aged 3 to 20 months in countries with a BCG vaccination program. Even if patients have 4 or fewer signs of the clinical criteria for KD, physicians should consider that patients with redness or crust formation at the BCG inoculation site could suffer

from KD.”
“Silicone rubber films with graded and localized mechanical properties are prepared using two-part polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer, photoinhibitor compounds and conventional photolithography. First the un-cross-linked PDMS is mixed with benzophenone. The resulting positive photosensitive material is then exposed

through a mask to UV light from a conventional mask aligner. Cross-linking of the UV exposed elastomer is inhibited, leading to softer regions than the surrounding unexposed matrix. By empirically fitting the nonlinear, hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin model to experimentally measured stress-strain curves we determine the equivalent tensile modulus (E) of the rubber see more film. We show the PDMS tensile modulus can then be adjusted in the 0.65-2.9 MPa range by decreasing the UV exposure dose (from 24 000 to 0 mJ cm(-2)). Further, using a patterned UV mask, we can locally define differential regions of tensile modulus within a single PDMS rubber film. We demonstrate that “”hard islands”" (E approximate to 2.9 MPa) of 100 mu m minimum diameter can be patterned within a 100-mu m-thick, single “”soft”" PDMS rubber membrane (E approximate to 0.65 MPa) cured at 150 degrees C for 24 h. Thin gold film conductors patterned directly onto the photopatterned PDMS are stretchable and withstand uniaxial cycling to tens of percent strain. The mechanically “”pixellated”" PDMS rubber film provides an improved substrate with built-in strain relief for stretchable electronics. (C)2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.

Methods A university hospital database was used to identify all

Methods. A university hospital database was used to identify all participants treated with primary diagnosis of OVCF between 1993 and 2006. Chart review and imaging studies were used to confirm demographics, comorbidities, diagnosis, and treatment. Survival time was determined Bucladesine Others inhibitor using hospital data, national death indices and patient follow-up. Exact Fisher tests, Mann-Whitney tests, and proportional hazards regression models with Kaplan-Meier plots compared patients treated with cement augmentation with controls treated with inpatient pain management and bracing. Patients with high-energy trauma, tumors or age more than 60 years were excluded.


Within the past 12 years, 46 patients treated with cement augmentation and 129 matched controls met inclusion criteria. They did not differ with

respect to age, sex, and comorbidities. A significant survival advantage was found after cement augmentation compared with controls (P < 0.001; log rank), regardless of comorbidities, age, or the number of fractures diagnosed at the start date (P = 0.565). Controlling simultaneously for covariates, the estimated BVD-523 in vivo hazard ratio associated with cementation was 0.10 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.02-0.43; P = 0.002) for year 1, 0.15 (95% CI = 0.02-1.12; P = 0.064) for year 2, and 0.95 (95% CI = 0.32-2.79; P = 0.919) for subsequent follow-up.

The number of OVCFs at the start time of treatment did not affect survival benefit of cementation (P = 0.44).

Conclusion. Cement augmentation of refractory OVCF improves survival for up to 2 years when compared with conservative pain management with bed rest, narcotics, and extension bracing, regardless of age, sex, and number of fractures or comorbidities. Therefore, aggressive management should be considered for refractory OVCFs with intractable back pain.”
“Chronic daily headache (CDH) is a fairly common but disabling disorder that disproportionately affects women and afflicts individuals across all stages of adulthood. It is a dynamic disorder, marked by relatively high rates of remission and incidence. To some extent, this may be due to the accepted, but not empirically supported, cut-point of 15 headache days per month. LY2835219 in vitro The purpose of this article is to understand the CDH classification; determine the prevalence and associated demographic profile of CDH as derived from population-based studies; outline identified risk factors for development or persistence of CDH; and understand which risk factors may be more amenable to intervention. Understanding the factors that put people at risk for developing CDH helps to inform possible clinical interventions and also determines which individuals may be most in need of preventive efforts.