The current review reconsiders the hot hand in sports using a met

The current review reconsiders the hot hand in sports using a meta-analytic approach.\n\nDesign: Mean effect size and 95% confidence interval were determined using a random effects model. Heterogeneity

of the mean effect size was examined applying Cochran’s Q test and the “75 percent rule”.\n\nMethod: To be included in the meta-analysis, studies had to provide an empirical investigation of the hot hand phenomenon related to sport and exercise behavior. Approximately 250 papers were located, but the final dataset included only 22 publications that met inclusion criteria, with 30 studies and 56 independent effect sizes. The articles extended over a period of twenty-seven years from 1985 until 2012.\n\nResults: The analysis of the effects yielded a minor positive mean effect size of .02, p = .49, using a random MI-503 manufacturer effects model, which is sufficient evidence for arguing against the existence PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor clinical trial of the hot hand. Due to the limited sample of studies available, only a few candidate-variables could be extracted and further

examined as potential moderator variables. However, none of the considered variables had the power to explain the heterogeneity of effect sizes.\n\nConclusions: The present study provides additional support for Gilovich et al.’s claim that a general hot hand effect probably does not exist in sport. The scientific implications of this review for prospect advances in the field are presented and discussed. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Denitrifying biofilters can remove agricultural nitrates from subsurface drainage, reducing nitrate pollution that contributes to coastal hypoxic zones. The performance

and reliability of natural and engineered systems dependent upon microbially mediated processes, such as the denitrifying Savolitinib biofilters, can be affected by the spatial structure of their microbial communities. Furthermore, our understanding of the relationship between microbial community composition and function is influenced by the spatial distribution of samples. In this study we characterized the spatial structure of bacterial communities in a denitrifying biofilter in central Illinois. Bacterial communities were assessed using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis for bacteria and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of nosZ for denitrifying bacteria. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) analyses indicated that bacteria showed statistically significant spatial structure by depth and transect, while denitrifying bacteria did not exhibit significant spatial structure. For determination of spatial patterns, we developed a package of automated functions for the R statistical environment that allows directional analysis of microbial community composition data using either ANOSIM or Mantel statistics.

042 vs P=0 065) There was no significant interaction between tre

042 vs P=0.065). There was no significant interaction between treatment arms and ethnicity.\n\nConclusion:Consistent with findings in the global population, pemetrexed-cisplatin did not improve survival compared with placebo-cisplatin for the EA group. However, in a subgroup analysis, pemetrexed-cisplatin showed

an overall survival advantage in EA patients receiving prior platinum-based AZD9291 therapy.”
“Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a non-invasive therapy offered to patients with refractory angina pectoris. Previous studies have demonstrated that its clinical effect depends on the diastolic/systolic augmentation ratio (D/S ratio). We hypothesized that the D/S ratio is associated with arterial stiffness measured as pulse wave velocity (PWV) and brachial pulse pressure (PP). Twenty patients with known refractory angina (17 men, 3 women; mean age 64 years) were included and underwent one hour of EECP treatment (Vasomedical Inc., Westbury, NY, USA). Three sets of cuffs were applied around the lower extremities. Gated by electrocardiography (ECG), air was inflated in diastole at a pressure of 260 mmHg and deflated at the start of systole. The D/S ratio was monitored with finger plethysmography. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured with mechanotransducers

(Complior SP, Artech Medical, France). PWV and brachial BP were measured at baseline before EECP.\n\nThe mean (SD) BP was 140 (23.5)/77 (9.9) mmHg, PP 62.8 (18.3) mmHg and PWV 10.8 learn more (4.4) m/s. EECP treatment increased the D/S ratio during a one-hour

session compared with baseline (1.30 (0.11) vs. 0.56 (0.04)P<0.001), and the D/S ratio at 45 min. was significantly correlated with PWV (r=0.49, P<0.05) and PP (r=0.58, P<0.05).\n\nWe demonstrated that the diastolic augmentation (D/S ratio) during EECP treatment depends screening assay on arterial stiffness.The results suggest that arterial compliance has a crucial influence on the effect of EECP and that large-artery stiffness may reduce the effect of EECP.”
“In sorghum, shoot fly resistance is important for grain yield and fodder value. An experiment was conducted to estimate genetic parameters of sorghum for resistance to shoot fly in 50 hybrids, by crossing 5 x 10 genotypes in line x tester manner. Plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of eggs per plant, trichomes on upper and lower surface per unit area of lamina and dead heart per cent were measured on 14 and 21 days after emergence (DAE) and glossiness of leaves was graded on 14 DAE. The correlation between midparent and hybrid performance, GCA : SCA ratio revealed predominance of non-additive gene effects for the traits studied, which could be exploited through hybrid breeding. Of the parents, SPSFPR 94004A and IS 4777 were the best general combiners for shoot fly resistance. Correlation and path analysis revealed the importance of resistance traits and phenol estimation confirms the resistances against shoot fly.

The results

of this case study and literature review sugg

The results

of this case study and literature review suggest that left thorascopic sympathectomy is a safe and effective approach for treating pediatric patients with LQTS. (DOI: 10.3171/2011.8.PEDS11164)”
“Rationale Electronic health systems are commonly included in health care reform discussions. However, their embrace by the health care community has been slow. Methods At Addiction Research and Treatment Corporation, a methadone maintenance programme that also provides primary medical care, HIV medical care and case management, substance abuse counselling and vocational services, we describe our experience in implementing an electronic health information system that encompasses all of these areas. Results We describe the challenges and opportunities of this process in terms of change management, hierarchy of corporate objectives, process mastering, training KPT-8602 issues, information technology governance, electronic security, and communication and collaboration. Conclusion This description may provide practical insights to other institutions seeking to pursue this technology.”
“Introduction: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome

that occurs MK5108 after the 20 weeks of pregnancy, and is characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. It complicates approximately 5-6% of all pregnancies and is a major factor in fetal and neonatal mortality.\n\nObjectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate serum concentration of soluble endoglin (sEng) as the predictor of preeclampsia in pregnant women with hypertension.\n\nMaterial and methods: The study was conducted at the Department of Pathology of Pregnancy (Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Medical University of Lodz), and the clinical ambulatory of the WSSz – M. Madurowicz (at present, WSSz – M. Pirogow) in Lodz, between 2008-2012. The Committee of Bioethics, Medical University of Lodz approved of the AZD1208 research (RNN/106/08/KE, May 20, 2008). The study included 86 pregnant women, between 25 and 40 weeks of pregnancy. The subjects were divided into 3 groups: – Group HA – 33 pregnant women with hypertension

arterialis (>= 140/90 mmHg) without proteinuria, – Group P – 21 pregnant women with hypertension arterialis (>= 140/90 mmHg) with proteinuria, – Group K – 32 pregnant women with normal blood pressure (<140/90 mmHg) without proteinuria. Markings were determined with the ELISA method, using Quantikine kit.\n\nResults: A significantly higher value of endoglin levels were found in pregnant women with preeclampsia syndrome (P) than in women with hypertension (HA) and the control group (K). Levels of endoglin in the P group was 29.70 pg/ml, 19.54 pg/ml in the HA group and 12.99 pg/ml in the K group.\n\nConclusions: Elevated serum concentration of soluble endoglin (SENG) in pregnant women constitutes a risk factor for preeclampsia.”
“Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) do not have a higher incidence of acute pancreatitis or pancreatitis of other etiologies than the general population.

Enrichment of KEGG analysis showed that the pathways of phagosome

Enrichment of KEGG analysis showed that the pathways of phagosome and protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum contained the most altered genes in the LPS group, but the percentage of phagosome pathway almost

doubled in BHT group. Most DEGs involved in the LPS signal recognition system was up-regulated in LPS group, but partly decreased in BHT group. RT-PCR results of eight relative genes were consistent with the results of microarrays. Conclusion: DEGs of LPS febrile syndrome mainly involved oxidoreductase and catalytic activity of the metabolic processes, and Selleck FK228 pathways of processing protein for pyrotoxin recognition; BHT mostly regulated the DEGs in the phagosome pathway to clear LPS in the liver, and partly interfered with gene expression

in LPS recognition system. The study provided an important pioneering result on gene expression profiling research, and will facilitate selleck the clinical care or further studies of the formula. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Lactobacillus plantarum strains were isolated from fully ripened, white brined Bulgarian home-made cheeses. Strains were derived from phenotypically homogenous Lactobacillus group and were identified as L. plantarum based on both phenotypic and molecular identification (species-specific and multiplex PCR) methods. Heterogeneity of L. plantarum isolates was evaluated by Rep-PCR analysis.\n\nFurther antimicrobial activity, antibiotic susceptibility and transit

tolerance of the strains were evaluated. Most of them showed broad spectrum of activity against Gram-negative bacteria (including human pathogens) independent on the presence of organic acids or hydrogen peroxide.\n\nAll strains were sensitive to amoxicillin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, Selleck 10058-F4 resistant to clinically relevant beta-lactame antibiotics (penicillin and ampicillin) and to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, and vancomycin. Significant variability in the sensitivity to tetracycline was noted.\n\nThe tolerance to low pH, bile salts, pepsin and pancreatin at concentrations similar to those in the gastrointestinal tract was strain-dependent. The exposure to bile salts was less destructive than exposure to pH 2.0 for all tested strains. Based on their combined responses to the above selection criteria, four L. plantarum strains, RL29, RL34, RL36 and RL37, were selected as potential probiotics for in vivo studies.”
“The syntheses, structures and biological evaluation of a series of cisplatin-like complexes containing bis (imidazole) derivatives – the so-called Joseph ligands – are described. Their cytotoxicity is discussed in terms of their polar surface area, rate of aquation, and lipophilicity. The X-ray crystal structure of the platinum diiodido derivative of dimethyl 2-(di(1H-imidazol-2-yl)methyl)malonate) is reported and compared to those of related systems.

After 2 5 mg/kg MDMA, mean MDMA C-max was 164 +/- 47 1 ng/ml, HHM

After 2.5 mg/kg MDMA, mean MDMA C-max was 164 +/- 47.1 ng/ml, HHMA and HMMA were major metabolites, and smaller than 20% of MDMA was metabolized to MDA. After 5- and 10-mg/ kg doses, MDMA areas under the curve (AUCs) were 3- and 10-fold

greater Sapanisertib price than those after 2.5 mg/kg; HHMA and HMMA AUC values were relatively constant across doses; and MDA AUC values were greater than dose-proportional. Our data provide decisive in vivo evidence that MDMA and MDA display nonlinear accumulation via metabolic autoinhibition in the rat. Importantly, 5-HT syndrome severity correlated with MDMA concentrations (r = 0.8083; P smaller than 0.0001) and core temperature correlated with MDA concentrations (r = 0.7595; P smaller than 0.0001), suggesting that MDMA’s behavioral and hyperthermic effects may involve distinct mechanisms. Given key similarities between MDMA pharmacokinetics in rats and humans, data from rats can

be useful when provided at clinically relevant doses.”
“Marine vegetated habitats, e.g. seagrass JNK pathway inhibitor meadows, deliver essential functions and services to coastal ecosystems and human welfare. Impacts induced by humans, however, have facilitated the replacement of seagrasses by alternative vegetation, e.g. green rhizophytic seaweeds. The implications of habitat shifts for ecosystem attributes and processes and the services they deliver remain poorly known. In this study, we compared ecosystem structure and function between Cymodocea nodosa seagrass meadows and bottoms dominated by Caulerpa prolifera, a green, native, rhizophytic seaweed, through 5 ecological proxies: (i) primary production DMXAA (via

community metabolism), (ii) composition and abundance of epifauna (a proxy for provision of habitat for epifauna), composition and abundance of (iii) small-sized (juvenile) and (iv) large-sized (adult) fishes (proxies for provision of habitat for fishes), and (v) sediment retention (a proxy for sediment stabilization). Four of these proxies were greater in C nodosa seagrass meadows than in C. prolifera beds: gross primary productivity (similar to 1.4 times), the total abundance, species density and biomass of small-sized fishes (similar to 2.1, 13 and 1.3 times, respectively), the total abundance and species density of large-sized fishes (similar to 3.6 and 1.5 times, respectively), and sediment stabilization (similar to 1.4 times). In contrast, the total abundance and species density of epifauna was larger (similar to 3.1 and 1.7 times, respectively) in C prolifera than in C. nodosa seagrass beds. These results suggest that ecosystem structure and function may differ if seagrasses are replaced by green rhizophytic seaweeds. Importantly, ecosystem functions may not be appropriate surrogates for one another.

Studies demonstrate complex

functions of activated microg

Studies demonstrate complex

functions of activated microglia that can lead to either beneficial or detrimental outcomes, depending on the form and the timing of activation. Combined with genetic and environmental factors, overactivation and dysregulation of microglia cause progressive neurotoxic consequences which involve a vicious cycle of neuron injury and unregulated neuroinflammation. Thus, modulation of microglial activation appears to be a promising new therapeutic target. While current therapies do attempt to block activation of microglia, they indiscriminately SIS3 purchase inhibit inflammation thus also curbing beneficial effects of inflammation and delaying recovery. Multiple signaling cascades, often cross-talking, are involved in every step of microglial activation. One of the Selleck GDC 973 key challenges is to understand the molecular mechanisms controlling cytokine expression and phagocytic activity, as well as cell-specific consequences of dysregulated cytokine expression. Further, a better understanding of how the integration of multiple cytokine signals influences the function or activity of individual microglia remains an important research objective to identify potential therapeutic targets for clinical intervention to promote repair.”
“The immunogenicity and safety of three novel host-range vaccines

containing deletions in the transmembrane domain of dengue virus serotype 2 (DV2) E glycoprotein were evaluated in African green monkeys. The shorter transmembrane

domains are capable Milciclib cell line of functionally spanning an insect but not a mammalian cell membrane, resulting in production of viral mutants that have reduced infectivity in mammalian hosts but efficient growth in insect cells. Groups of four monkeys received one dose each of test vaccine candidate with no booster immunization. After immunization, levels of viremia produced by each vaccine were determined by infectious center assay. Vaccine recipient immune response to wild-type DV2 challenge was measured on Day 57 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and plaque reduction neutralization test. Two vaccines, DV2 Delta GVII and DV2G46013, generated neutralizing antibody in the range of 700-900 50% plaque reduction neutralization test units. All three vaccine strains decreased the length of viremia by at least two days. No safety concerns were identified.”
“Background: We have shown in a randomized controlled trial that vitamin D increases bone mass, lean mass and bone area in adolescent girls, but not boys. These increments may translate into improvements in bone geometry and therefore bone strength. This study investigated the impact of vitamin D on hip geometric dimensions from DXA-derived hip structural analyses in adolescents who participated in the trial.\n\nMethods: 167 girls (mean age 13.1 years) and 171 boys (mean age 12.

Vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) implantation provided limited improv

Vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) implantation provided limited improvement (2 patients) and no improvement (7).\n\nSignificance: This study found that TRE is common in idiopathic autism and more common with early age of seizure onset. Relatively few patients underwent surgical resection due to multifocal partial epilepsy, Selleckchem SYN-117 comorbid generalized epilepsy, or limited impact of ongoing partial seizures given other problems related to autism. Our small sample suggests that surgical and VNS outcomes in this group are less favorable than in other TRE populations.”
“Object. A spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is rare but potentially devastating

if not diagnosed early. Unfortunately, diagnostic delays and associated neurological deficits are common. The objectives of this analysis were to explore the use of a novel clinical decision guideline to screen patients who present to the emergency department (ED) selleck chemicals with spine pain for SEA and to determine the diagnostic test characteristics of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) level in patients at risk for SEA.\n\nMethods. This was a prospective, cohort analysis comparing the incidence of diagnostic delays and presence of motor deficits at the time of diagnosis before and after implementation of a novel decision guideline using risk factor assessment followed

by ESR and CRP testing prior to definitive imaging. A delay was defined as either multiple ED visits or admission to a nonsurgical service

without a diagnosis of SEA. A 9-month substudy was performed in all patients who presented to the ED with spine pain so that the diagnostic test characteristics of the ESR and CRP level could be defined.\n\nResults. A total of 55 patients with an SEA in the 9-year control period and 31 patients with an SEA in the 5-year study period were identified. this website Diagnostic delays were observed in 46 (83.6%) of 55 patients before guideline implementation versus 3 (9.7%) of 31 after guideline implementation (p < 0.001). Motor deficits were present at the time of diagnosis in 45 (81.8%) of 55 patients before guideline implementation versus 6(19.4%) of 31 after guideline implementation (p < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of ESR in patients with an SEA risk factor were 100% and 67%, respectively. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed better test characteristics for ESR (area under curve 0.96) than for CRP (area under curve 0.81).\n\nConclusions. A treatment guideline incorporating risk factor assessment followed by ESR and CRP testing was highly sensitive and moderately specific in identifying ED patients with SEA. A decrease in diagnostic delays and a lower incidence of motor deficits at the time of diagnosis was observed. (DOI: 10.3171/2011.1.

Its overall lipid productivity was 113 mg/Lid when grown under no

Its overall lipid productivity was 113 mg/Lid when grown under non-optimal conditions using batch cultivation. A two-step response surface methodology was adopted to optimize its cultivation conditions. The overall lipid productivity was increased to 263 mg/L/d when the cells were grown under the optimized conditions of 6.6 mM initial nitrogen level and 6 days selleck products nitrogen depletion treatment in 700 mu mol/m(2)/s

light intensity at 35 degrees C using batch cultivation. Fed-batch and semi-continuous cultivations were employed to further increase its lipid productivity to 213 and 302 mg/L/d, respectively. The 302 mg/L/d is the highest overall lipid productivity of microalgae ever reported in the literature. This study provides the information required for the design and operation of photobioreactors for large scale outdoor cultivation of this species. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BackgroundTreatment of acne scars with ablative fractional CO2 laser appears to be an effective and well-tolerated treatment. However, so far the influence of treatment interval has not been evaluated. ObjectiveTo evaluate whether treatment of acne scars with fractional CO2 laser resurfacing at 1-month interval achieves better results with no difference in the occurrence of adverse effects, than treatment given at 3-months interval. MethodsPatients

(n=13) with symmetrical atrophic acne scars on right and left sides of the mid-face and lower-face were randomized to two fractional CO2 laser treatments at 1-month versus 3-month intervals. Blinded on-site evaluations

were performed 1 and 6 months after the last treatment MK 5108 on 10-point scales. Endpoints were scar atrophy, patient satisfaction, and adverse Pim inhibitor effects. ResultsPre-operatively, acne scars were moderately atrophic (5.861.87). After treatment acne scars appeared with less atrophy on both treated sides 1 month postoperatively (1-month interval 1.96 +/- 1.23, P smaller than 0.0001; 3-months interval 1.82 +/- 1.08, P=0.0006) and 6 months postoperatively (1-month interval 1.56 +/- 1.24, P=0.0021; 3-months interval 1.33 +/- 1.66, P=0.0002). The treatment interval did not influence the improvement of scar atrophy at any time postoperatively (P=0.81). Patients were moderately and equally satisfied with the treatment result on facial sides (P=0.93). Postoperative adverse effects were minor and not influenced by the treatment interval. ConclusionsFractional CO2 laser resurfacing improves atrophic acne scars and a treatment interval of either 1-month or 3-months does not seem to influence the improvement of scar atrophy nor the occurrence of postoperative adverse effects. Lasers Surg. Med. 46:89-93, 2014. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Soundscape as an inherent part of landscape provides ecosystem services, first of all spiritual and symbolic services as well as educational and esthetic ones.

Although miltefosine (hexadecylphosphocholine or HPC) is a promis

Although miltefosine (hexadecylphosphocholine or HPC) is a promising orally bioavailable anti-leishmanial drug, its efficacy is seriously compromised by contra-indications HER2 inhibitor in pregnant women. Further rational redesigning of the drug requires studies on its mechanism of action, which is unknown at present. Because miltefosine

is proposed to have immunomodulatory functions, we examined whether miltefosine exerts its anti-leishmanial functions by activating macrophages. We observed that miltefosine’s anti-leishmanial function was significantly compromised in IFN-gamma-deficient macrophages suggesting the importance of endogenous IFN-gamma in miltefosine-induced anti-leishmanial functions of macrophages. Miltefosine induced IFN-gamma, neutralization of which reduced the anti-leishmanial

functions of macrophages. IFN-gamma responsiveness is reduced in L. donovani-infected macrophages but is significantly restored by miltefosine, as it enhances IFN-gamma receptors and IFN-gamma A-769662 in vivo induced STAT-1 phosphorylation but reduced activation of SHP-1, the phosphatase implicated in the down-regulation of STAT-1 phosphorylation. Miltefosine induced protein kinase C-dependent and PI3K-dependent p38MAP kinase phosphorylation and anti-leishmanial function. Miltefosine promotes p38MAP kinase-dependent anti-leishmanial functions and IL-12-dependent Th1 response. Leishmania donovani-infected macrophages induced Th2 response but miltefosine treatment reversed the response to Th1-type. Thus, our data define for the first time the mechanistic basis of host cell-dependent anti-leishmanial function of miltefosine. The Journal of Immunology, 2009, 182: 7146-7154.”
“A growing body of research suggests that comprehending verbal descriptions of actions relies on an internal simulation of the described action. To assess this motor resonance account of language comprehension, we first review

recent developments in the literature on perception and action, with a view towards language processing. We then examine studies Silmitasertib mouse of language processing from an action simulation perspective. We conclude by discussing several criteria that might be helpful with regard to assessing the role of motor resonance during language comprehension.”
“Objectives This study describes a genome-wide linkage analysis of a large family with clinically heterogeneous hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).\n\nBackground Familial HCM is a disorder characterized by genetic heterogeneity. In as many as 50% of HCM cases, the genetic cause remains unknown, suggesting that other genes may be involved.\n\nMethods Clinical evaluation, including clinical history, physical examination, electrocardiography, and 2-dimensional echocardiography, was performed, and blood was collected from family members (n = 23) for deoxyribonucleic acid analysis.


Quetiapine selleck chemicals llc is an atypical antipsychotic agent with a complex pharmacology, including antagonist actions at 5-HT2A and, to a lesser extent, D-2 receptors. Here, we investigated the effects of (short-term) treatment with quetiapine on the risky decision-making of healthy human adults. Twenty participants received 150 mg of quetiapine XL for 7 d, whereas 20 age-and IQ-matched participants received a placebo. On the eighth day, all participants completed

a risky decision-making task that involved making a series of choices between two simultaneously presented gambles that differed in the magnitudes of their possible gains and losses, and the probabilities with which these outcomes were delivered. Quetiapine treatment was associated with a marked tendency to choose options with negative expected values compared with placebo treatment in male but not female ALK mutation participants. Our results demonstrate that antagonism of serotonin and dopamine receptor activity can alter the way individuals use information about gains and losses when selecting between risky actions, possibly reflecting gender-specific differences in risk attitudes. These effects may be beneficial by correcting decision-making biases that feature in mood

“The green alga Spirogyra varians accumulated antioxidative compounds in response to cold stress. When the algae were transferred from 20A degrees C to 4A degrees C, the amount of phenolic contents and flavonoids in the cell increased 17 times and 30 times, respectively, in 2 months. At this time, the radical scavenging activity of the methanolic extract of S. varians was 238 times higher than that of initial

culture. To identify the responsible antioxidants, the methanolic extract was obtained from the algae grown at 4A degrees C. HPLC analysis of the extract showed six compounds newly produced or increased over time. Four of the compounds were successfully purified, and the structures were identified using H-1 NMR spectroscopy. The compounds were galloyl derivatives-methyl gallate, 1-O-Galloyl-beta-d-glucose, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-Galloyl-beta-d-glucose Selleckchem BVD-523 and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-Galloyl-beta-d-glucose which are intermediates of the shikimate pathway.”
“Aim. The aim of this paper was to contribute to a better understanding of the angiogenesis in peripheral arterial disease (PAD); we evaluated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) in critical limb ischemia (CLI).\n\nMethods. Skirt and muscle biopsies were collected from 12 patients submitted to major amputation for CLI, proximal samples from amputation level and distal ones from the more ischemic region. Three controls were obtained from orthopedic patients. Capillary density was determined in random selected high-power fields. Expression pattern of VEGF and Ang-2 was studied by immunohistochemistry and quantification was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.\n\nResults.