In the United Kingdom and Ireland, the grey seal breeds in large

In the United Kingdom and Ireland, the grey seal breeds in large colonies at Donna Nook in Lincolnshire, the Farne Islands off the coast of Northumberland, where there are >6,000 animals, Orkney and North Rona learn more off northern Scotland, Lambay Island off Dublin and Ramsey Island off Pembrokeshire. Most recently (2013), the Zoological Society of London carried out, by air, land and sea, the first ever count of seals in the Thames Estuary and were astounded to record >700 individuals made up of 200 grey and 500 harbour seals. The society’s conservation scientist, Joanna Barker, said, however, that ‘Recently, we have seen drastic declines

in numbers of harbour seals across Scotland, with populations almost disappearing in some areas.’ Which is strange because on 20 September 2006, The Times reported that about 90% of British grey seals lived in Scottish waters and, at ∼120,000 individuals, accounted for 40% of the world total. As noted above too, elsewhere, numbers are increasing. The same Times article, however, pointed out that anyone with an endorsement on their firearm’s certificate can, between 1 June and 31 August and 1 September to 31 December, Venetoclax shoot harbour and grey seals, respectively. And it seems fishermen have been doing just that,

notably cage fish farmers. In The Times of 3 December 2012, it was revealed that >300 seals have been shot by some or all of eight government-licensed fish-farming companies since 1 January 2011 and that Scottish ministers had been trying to keep this secret. Today, such numbers have to be reported. Of course, such Scottish numbers pale in contrast with the fact that, according to the European Commission, about one million seals are hunted commercially around the world each year. Significant sealing countries are Canada, Norway, Greenland, Iceland and Namibia in possibly and approximately that order of importance

as quotas change. Until recently, Russia was also a commercial Ergoloid sealing nation, euphemistically harvesting in harp (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and hooded (Cystophora cristata) seals in the Greenland and White Seas. In January 2000, a bill to ban seal hunting was passed in the Russian Parliament by 273 votes to 1, but was vetoed by President Vladimir Putin. On 13 March 2008, however, The Times reported that the quota of 35,000 seal pups to be killed in the White Sea had been cancelled and, subsequently and famously, President Putin cancelled the cull. Not just this, but on 18 March 2009, following the earlier local, international and (typically alzheimic) celebrity-fuelled outcry, against the cull, Russia’s Minister of Natural Resources and Ecology, Yuriy Trutnev, announced a complete ban on the culling of new-born (‘whitecoat’) seals thereby saving >35,000 harp seal pups in the White Sea alone each year.

7) ABA triggers cell death by necrosis in a concentration- and t

7). ABA triggers cell death by necrosis in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, becoming significant at 60 min for concentrations of 75 and 100 μM (Bottom panel). Fifty micromolar of ABA triggered necrosis after only 120 min of incubation. Proadifen LDK378 mouse stimulated the ABA-induced cell necrosis. In this study, we used isolated rat hepatocytes to study the toxicity mechanism induced by ABA in vitro and the influence of biotransformation of the drug. The interference of ABA in the functioning of the mitochondrial

respiratory chain in isolated rat hepatocytes was monitored by measuring oxygen consumption. The results showed a clear inhibition of the rate of oxygen consumption in state 3 of mitochondrial respiration with both substrates of complex I (glutamate + malate) and complex II (succinate) at all of the tested concentrations (5–25 μM). These results are consistent with those obtained by Castanha Zanoli et al. (2012), in which the effects of ABA on the isolated mitochondria of rat liver were evaluated and an inhibitory effect on the ANT and FoF1-ATPsintase

was shown. During the biotransformation of xenobiotics in the liver, BTK inhibitor the metabolites generated can be even more toxic than the parent compound (Ioannides and Lewis, 2004). In a study using rat liver microsomes, Zeng et al. (1996) showed that the major metabolites produced from abamectin are 3″-O-Desmethyl B1a (3″-ODMe B1a), 24-Hydroxymethyl B1a (24 OHMe-B1a) and 26-Hydroxymethyl B1a (26 OHMe-B1a). The authors attributed the metabolism of ABA to cytochrome P450 isoforms 1A1 and 3A as responsible for the metabolism of ABA, being the production of the metabolite 3″-ODMe B1a attributed to isoform 3A and the production of metabolites 24 OHMe-B1a and 26-OHMe B1a to isoform 1A1. Therefore, to evaluate the effect of the biotransformation on ABA toxicity, the hepatocytes were incubated in the absence or presence of proadifen, a broad inhibitor

of cytochrome P450 isoforms (Khan et al., 1993, Bort et al., 1998, Mingatto et al., 2002, Somchit et al., 2009 and Shi et al., 2011), which was previously shown to inhibit about 90% of the metabolism of ABA (Zeng et al., 1996). ABA metabolism else interferes with the mitochondrial membrane potential because a more significant decrease in this parameter was observed in hepatocytes in the presence of proadifen. Due to the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation and the formation of a mitochondrial membrane potential induced by ABA, a reduction in the intracellular ATP concentration is expected. This effect was observed in liver cells incubated with or without proadifen. The effect was more pronounced in the cells incubated with the P450 inhibitor, indicating that the parent drug is more toxic than the metabolites. Castanha Zanoli et al.

3) As necessary, dissection between the uncinate process and SMA

3). As necessary, dissection between the uncinate process and SMA is possible, as well as transection of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal selleck antibody artery in this operating field (Video 2). After passing the jejunum stump to the right side, the surgeon pulls up the pancreatic head as the assistant pulls up the tape placed at the pancreatic neck to pull the pancreas away from the SMV radially (Fig. 4). Maintaining this position, the uncinate process is dissected from the mesenteric vessels toward the hepatoduodenal ligament by dividing the connective tissue, which includes the nerve plexus, inferior pancreaticoduodenal

artery, and the branches of SMV, mostly with only LigaSure. When there is a thick inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery, it is divided after clipping. During this procedure, the surgeon

stands between the patient’s lower limbs and LigaSure is inserted through the port at the umbilicus to be parallel with the SMA, so that the risk of injury to the SMA is reduced (Fig. 5). The dissection using LigaSure is repeated in order: first, the dorsal layer (tissue beside SMA) and next, the ventral layer (tissue beside SMV including the branches of SMV), taking advantage of the unique view from the caudal side (Fig. 6). Finally, the nerve plexus of the pancreatic head is divided beside the celiac axis, and then the right aspect of PV is exposed completely Ku-0059436 purchase and only the pancreatic neck and CBD remain connected with the pancreatic head (Fig. 7) (Video 3). The pancreatic neck and CBD are divided with Harmonic (Ethicon

Endo-Surgery, Inc.) at the final stage. After resection, the midline just above the pancreas is opened to 4 cm and the specimen is removed within the plastic bag through this incision. Then, pancreaticojejunostomy and choledocojejunostomy are performed via the pure laparoscopic approach, and duodenojejunostomy is performed extracorporeally through the 4-cm midline incision.4 Morin Hydrate In one of the patients who required gastrojejunostomy, it was performed using a linear stapler via the laparoscopic approach. From August 2011 to April 2013 at Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, using the current procedure, which has been standardized since our second case, 21 patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus-preserving PD, 4 patients underwent laparoscopic PD, and 1 patient underwent laparoscopic spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy. Of these, partial gastrectomy for early gastric carcinoma was performed simultaneously in 1 patient. The 26 patients had a mean age of 70 years (range 46 to 86 years). The male to female ratio was 15:11. Basically, our indication criteria of laparoscopic surgery for a lesion of the pancreatic head were as follows.

In terms of abundance, MPs accounted for 65% of debris recorded w

In terms of abundance, MPs accounted for 65% of debris recorded within the Tamar Estuary, UK (Browne et al., 2010). As the most important industrial and economic center for China, the region of the Yangtze Estuary is densely populated. Browne et al. (2011) demonstrated that there was a significant relationship

between MP abundance and human population density. Due to dense population concentration, river discharge and various maritime activities, the Yangtze Estuary is vulnerable to plastic accumulation. Nevertheless, MPs in the Yangtze Estuary System are almost completely lacking. The objective of the present investigation was to examine the Selleck BGB324 occurrence and distribution of MPs in surface water of the Yangtze Estuary and the adjacent East China Sea (ECS). The study was carried out in the Yangtze Estuary and the coastal water of the East China Sea (Fig. 1). The 7 samplings in the Yangtze Estuary were conducted from July 22 to 23, 2013 during the same low tide (Table 1). Fifteen neustonic trawls were collected from August 4 to EPZ5676 supplier 9, 2013 in the coastal water of the East China Sea. Depending on its distance from the shore, the designed sampling trawls were divided along five transects (B, C, D, E and F) and into 3 departments: trawls closest to the shore (TCS), trawls intermediate distance to the shore

(TIS) and trawls farthest to shore (TFS) (Table 2). Surface water samples were collected from each location in the Yangtze Estuary using a 12 V DC Teflon pump at a depth of 1 m (Table 1). Two replicate samples were passed through a 32-μm steel sieve. The retained particulate material was washed into 50 mL glass bottles. The samples in the East China Sea were collected using a neuston net with a 30 × 40 cm2 opening and 333 μm mesh (Ryan et al., 2009) (Table 2). The net was towed along the surface layer at a nominal 2.0 knots (1.75–2.45 knots) for 25–30 min in each transect and towed off the port side of the vessel to avoid disturbance by the bow Inositol monophosphatase 1 wave. Contents of the net were washed into a sample jar and fixed in 2.5%

formalin (Lattin et al., 2004). In the laboratory, samples containing large quantities of organic matter were oxidatively cleaned using 30% H2O2 (Nuelle et al., 2014). Plastic particles were separated from organic matter by floating in a saturated zinc chloride solution (Liebezeit and Dubaish, 2012). The floating MP particles were filtered over gridded 1.2 μm cellulose nitrate filters. The MPs were enumerated under a dissecting microscope at up to 80× magnification. To avoid misidentification of MPs, we used the criteria applied to define a plastic particle in previous studies (Mohamed Nor and Obbard, 2014 and Norén, 2007). Nevertheless, these selection criteria are considered applicable only for MP particles within the size range 0.5–5 mm (Costa et al., 2010 and Hidalgo-Ruz et al., 2012). Thus the MP particles with the same range size (>0.5 mm) were enumerated in this study.

PTH decreases membrane expression of NaPi-2a by phosphorylation o

PTH decreases membrane expression of NaPi-2a by phosphorylation of serine-77 (S77) in the Na+/H+ exchange regulatory Selleck BTK inhibitor cofactor (NHERF)-1,

a scaffolding protein, leading to internalization and degradation of NaPi-2a [21] and [22]. A recent study suggested that the phosphaturic action of FGF23 may also involve phosphorylation of NHERF-1 at S77 [23]. To test this possibility in vivo, we injected mice with rFGF23, and performed reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation of the NaPi-2a/NHERF-1 complex on renal brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) preparations. rFGF23 caused an almost 4-fold increase in urinary phosphate excretion compared to vehicle injection (46.9 ± 10.4 vs. 12.3 ± 0.6 mmol/mmol creatinine in vehicle-treated controls, P < 0.05), and this effect was accompanied by hypophosphatemia (2.2 ± 0.2 vs. 3.4 ± 0.3 mmol/l in vehicle-treated controls, P < 0.05). The rFGF23-induced phosphaturia was associated with a 50% reduction in membrane abundance of the NaPi-2a/NHERF-1 complex ( Fig. 4A). Immunofluorescence staining of paraffin sections with anti-NHERF-1

Navitoclax and anti-phosphoserine antibodies showed a clear reduction in the apical membrane abundance of NHERF-1, and a general increase in serine phosphorylation in proximal tubular epithelium of rFGF23-treated mice ( Fig. 4B). Moreover, the co-staining also suggested increased serine phosphorylation of NHERF-1 in the apical membrane, 8 h after rFGF23 Suplatast tosilate injection ( Fig. 4B). Collectively, these data show that FGF23 signaling targets the NaPi-2a/NHERF-1 complex in the apical cell membrane of renal tubular epithelium in vivo. Next, we examined whether FGF23 induces phosphorylation of NHERF-1 and whether SGK1 is involved in this process in isolated proximal tubular segments. Similar to PTH, a 2-hour treatment of proximal tubules with rFGF23 led to a marked increase in serine phosphorylation of NHERF-1 (Fig. 4C). Importantly, FGF23- but not PTH-induced phosphorylation of NHERF-1 could be completely blocked by an SGK1 inhibitor (Fig. 4C), suggesting

that activated SGK1 mediates phosphorylation of NHERF-1. To confirm the functional role of Klotho in FGF23 signaling, we isolated proximal tubular segments from 3-month-old wild-type, VDR∆/∆, and Kl−/−/VDR∆/∆ mice, and treated them for 2 h with 1, 10, and 100 ng/ml rFGF23 in vitro. We chose Kl−/−/VDR∆/∆ mice as αKlotho deficient animal model, because Kl−/− mice are characterized by severe alterations in mineral homeostasis [11] which might affect the results of subsequent ex vivo experiments. Kl−/−/VDR∆/∆ mice on rescue diet are normocalcemic and normophosphatemic, and have unchanged PTH serum levels compared with VDR∆/∆ mice [11]. rFGF23 treatment resulted in a similar dose dependent down-regulation of NaPi-2a expression in proximal tubular segments from wild-type and VDR∆/∆ mice ( Fig. 5), showing that this effect is vitamin D independent.

, 2002, Shih et al , 2004 and Li and Lim, 2007) In HepG2, cadmiu

, 2002, Shih et al., 2004 and Li and Lim, 2007). In HepG2, cadmium has been shown to cause apoptosis learn more via both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways ( Oh and Lim, 2006). Similarly, ROS alone have also been shown to cause apoptosis via both pathways ( Simon et al., 2000). In this study, CdCl2 was also shown to cause similar effects on the apoptotic biomarkers of both pathways, but the effects were less pronounced compared to that of CdTe-QDs, suggesting that the effects of CdTe-QDs possibly involve

both cadmium and ROS generated from these NPs. Our findings support the suggestions from recent studies on the mechanisms of cadmium-based QD-induced toxicity in different cell lines and in an invertebrate model organism that QD treatments resulted in more severe toxic effects than cadmium at the same concentration, suggesting that the QD effects were not only from the release of Cd2+ ions but also from the properties of the NPs and ROS generated from them ( Li et al., 2009, Chen et al., 2012 and Ambrosone et al., 2012). In conclusion, the present study investigated the mechanism of toxic effects

caused by CdTe-QDs in HepG2 cells and revealed that CdTe-QDs caused cytotoxicity in these Ribociclib manufacturer cells by inducing oxidative stress leading to apoptosis. Oxidative stress induced by CdTe-QDs was evidenced by the increase in ROS production and the interference of these NPs on the antioxidant defenses in test cells. CdTe-QDs caused apoptosis in test cells via both extrinsic Pembrolizumab order and intrinsic pathways. Even though the release of Cd2+ from CdTe-QDs was not measured in this study,

treatments of cells with equivalent cadmium concentrations (in the form of CdCl2) were conducted for comparative purposes. Since the effects of Cd-QDs appeared similar or greater to those of CdCl2, it was postulated that the toxicity of CdTe-QDs arises from more than one factor, including cadmium effects, ROS generation and the intrinsic nano-scale properties of CdTe-QDs. The study provides valuable information for understanding the toxicity of CdTe-QDs which is important for safety evaluation of the nanoparticles for future biomedical applications. None. The authors thank Dr. Sabina Halappanavar, Dr. Hongyan Dong and Dr. Vern Seligy for reviewing the manuscript. This work was supported by Canadian Regulatory System for Biotechnology and Chemicals Management Plan Monitoring and Surveillance funding. “
“Depleted uranium (DU) is the residue that remains after the refining and enriching of 235U from natural uranium; the content of 235U is usually 0.2–0.3%. Due to its high penetrability and low price as a raw material, DU has been widely used in counterweights, radiation-protective clothing, and military activities (serving as an armour material and an ammunition component) (Bleise et al., 2003).

Control samples exposed to secondary antibody alone showed no spe

Control samples exposed to secondary antibody alone showed no specific staining. For immunohistochemical staining of Bcl-2, Bax,

and VEGF, paraffin sections (4-6 μm thick) were mounted on positively charged Superfrost slides (Fisher Scientific, Co, Houston, TX) and dried overnight. Sections were deparaffinized in xylene, dehydrated with a graded series of alcohol [100%, 95%, and 80% ethanol/double-distilled H2O (vol/vol)], rehydrated in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.5), and then microwaved for 5 minutes to improve “antigen retrieval.” The slides were rinsed twice with PBS, and endogenous peroxidase activity was blocked with 3% hydrogen peroxidase in PBS for 12 minutes. Nonspecific reactions were blocked by incubating SCH772984 supplier the sections in a solution containing 5% normal horse serum and 1% normal goat serum for 20 minutes at room temperature (RT). Then, the slides were incubated overnight at 4°C with a 1:50 dilution of polyclonal antibodies against Bcl-2, Bax, or VEGF (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Dallas, TX). The samples were then rinsed three times with PBS and incubated in HRP-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG at the appropriate dilutions for 60 minutes at RT. After rinsing with PBS, the slides were incubated for 5 minutes with DAB (Life Technologies,

Inc), rinsed with distilled water, counterstained with Gill’s hematoxylin for 1 minute, and mounted with Universal Mount (Life Technologies, Inc). For quantification CYC202 molecular weight of PCNA expression, the number of positive cells was quantified in 10 random fields at × 200 magnification. To quantify mean vessel density, 10 random fields at × 100 magnification were examined for each tumor, and the microvessels within those fields were counted. A single microvessel was defined as a discrete cluster of cells stained positive for CD31 and the presence of lumen [25]. TUNEL assay was performed following CD31/PECAM-1 immunofluorescent staining as described previously [26]. The TUNEL assay was performed using a commercially available apoptosis detection kit (Promega, Madison, WI) with the following modifications. Samples were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) for 10 minutes at RT, washed twice

with PBS for 5 minutes, and then incubated with 0.2% Triton X-100 for 15 minutes at RT. After two 5-minute washes with PBS, the samples were incubated with equilibration buffer (from kit) for 10 minutes at RT. The equilibration buffer was drained, and the reaction buffer containing equilibration buffer, nucleotide mix, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) enzyme was added to the tissue sections and incubated in a humid atmosphere at 37°C for 1 hour in the dark. The reaction was terminated by immersing the samples in 2 × SSC for 15 minutes. Samples were washed three times for 5 minutes to remove unincorporated fluorescein-labeled deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP). The samples were incubated with 300 μg/ml Hoechst 33342 for 10 minutes at RT.

Instead, a combination of environmentally and genetically transmi

Instead, a combination of environmentally and genetically transmitted noncognitive

(‘noncognitive’ because inherited IQ was shown not to explain social class inheritance) personality traits have been proposed to account for most of the correlation between the economic positions of parents and children [50]. Although more work is needed to selleck chemicals llc unveil the contribution of specific personality traits, a recent study that applied mathematical modeling to results from a classic twin design study [51] suggested that one of the key characteristics to attain high social status, ‘being attractive to others’, is heritable and plays a role in the evolution of social networks. Apart from aggressive behavior and dominance-motivation, the energy or ‘vigor’ to perform in a social competition is yet another feature that relates to social dominance [42•]. There is evidence that this type of energy may be genetically controlled. Both in bees and

in the fruit fly, the tendency to forage is controlled by a gene called for (for foraging). High levels of for-activity results in animals exhibiting a more energetic phenotype as compared Fluorouracil datasheet to their lower for-activity level counterparts [43]. In bees, the activity level of for not only controls how vigorous the animal seeks for food but also determines its social status in the hive [44]. Differences in social rank have also been linked to differences in resting metabolism in some populations of fish, bird and rodent Amino acid species [45]. The identification of genes that contribute to the determination of social dominance rank has just started. In fact, no gene that exclusively

promotes social dominance has so far being identified. Possibly, the genetic contribution to a social hierarchy formation is routed via behavioral dimensions that contribute to its expression indirectly. The behavioral dimensions involved may include individual differences in personality affecting trait anxiety, agonistic behavior, motivational processes and/or behavioral vigor. Susceptibility to the context might also be a critical dimension, as stress was shown to strongly influence social hierarchy formation 46 and 47]. Although the mechanisms are largely unknown, it is plausible that genes encoding for components of the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems, as well as the social neuropeptides, underlie –at least partly- rank-formation in a social hierarchy. In addition, transcriptional regulators and imprinted genes hold great promise for the future investigation on the underpinnings of social hierarchy formation behavior. The functional modulation of the specific genes by epigenetic factors in turn may link the genetic and environmental factors involved in the establishment of a social hierarchy.

A SEM (DSM 962, Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany) was employed to acqui

A SEM (DSM 962, Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany) was employed to acquire qBEI images using 20 keV electrons leading to an information depth of about 1.5 μm [35]. Images at different magnifications 12-fold for overviews and 200-fold (pixel resolution of about 1 × 1 μm2) were obtained to select and define the region of interest (ROI) in bone for SR-μ-XRF analysis similar to a study done previously [32]. Especially areas (bone click here packets, osteons) containing mineralized bone matrix with different degrees of mineralization have been selected. The properties of synchrotron radiation (SR) including

high photon flux, natural collimation, polarization and the possibility to select the energy of the primary photons enabled sensitivities up to the femtogram range and a high spatial resolution in the micrometer range. In previous studies, the combination of a confocal geometry and SR allowed the analysis of trace elements in bone and articular cartilage at the micrometer range with high-sensitivity and high spatial distribution [11], [36] and [37]. Further details on confocal SR-μ-XRF can be found elsewhere [38], [39], [40], [41] and [42]. The present measurements have been carried out at the FLUO beamline of the ANKA

synchrotron facility at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Campus North [40] and [41] applying the same confocal setup as already described previously [32]. The actual excitation energy was 17 keV and the beam size was 17 μm × 12 μm (horizontal × vertical) selleck chemicals llc with a depth resolution of 19 μm at 9.71 keV (Au-Lα). Area scans in the sample surface were performed in the range of 500 μm × 500 μm up to 500 μm × 650 μm with a step size of 15 μm horizontal and 10 μm vertical. Acquisition times longer than 12 s per pixel were found not to show

any improvements in the signal to noise ratio of the obtained elemental maps. Especially, the low levels of Pb content required this relatively long acquisition time. The acquired spectra, an example of which is shown in Fig. 1, were processed according to the protocol described in [32]. The information about bone tissue structure and mineral content as obtained by qBEI was combined and correlated with the X-ray intensities of the corresponding Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase elemental maps. The 2D data evaluation software ImageJ (v1.44, National Institutes of Health, USA) [43] and custom made routines were applied to pre-process the obtained data prior to statistical evaluation with GraphPad Prism (v4.0c, GraphPad Software, Inc., USA). First the qBEI images of high spatial resolution (1 μm per pixel) have been aligned with the corresponding SR μ-XRF maps. Secondly, the ROIs representing mineralized bone matrix and cement lines were indicated in the qBEI images. ROIs of mineralized bone matrix were marked within single structural units (osteon, bone packet) taking care that at least a distance of a few microns (5 to 10 μm) to cracks, cement lines, osteocyte lacunae, haversian canals or trabecular surface was kept.

GPBD 4 is a good example of an improved variety that was develope

GPBD 4 is a good example of an improved variety that was developed as a second cycle derivative of an interspecific cross. Synthetics may be another effective way for bringing useful genes from wild relatives. In this direction, several synthetics are now available by using different diploid species and these

need to be utilized for improving the cultivated gene pool [14], [15], [16] and [17]. Thus, in this study, highly diverse Proteases inhibitor synthetics were used to introgress disease resistance in five cultivars. As a result, foliar disease (leaf rust and LLS) resistance was introgressed into one or more of the genetic backgrounds of ICGV 91114, ICGS 76, ICGV 91278, JL 24, and DH 86 using two synthetic resistance sources namely ISATGR 278-18

and ISATGR 5B (Table 3). Seed setting percentage improved with repeated backcrossing. The presence of phenotypic traits from the donor synthetics enabled confirmation of hybrids as crossing in groundnut can be very difficult. In later generations, the presence of one or more of these traits still enabled confirmation of backcross hybrids. Backcrossed introgression lines in different generations were scored for rust and LLS response and lines possessing disease resistance were identified. Of the 10 attempted combinations, resistant derivatives were obtained in high frequencies for ICGS 76 × ISATGR 5B and DH 86 × ISATGR 278-18. Unfortunately, no resistant plant could be recovered from JL 24 × ISATGR 5B and ICGV 91114 × ISATGR

5B. It is clearly evident that the frequency and level of resistance to CAL-101 molecular weight both diseases were higher among crosses involving ISATGR 278-18 compared to ISATGR 5B. Thus, ISATGR 278-18 appears to be a potentially better source of disease resistance and other agronomic traits for further diversifying the primary gene pool of groundnut. Besides disease resistance, the synthetic Astemizole derivatives also showed a high level of variation in morphological traits and several backcross lines were selected for those traits (Table 5 and Table 6). Due to abnormal pairing during meiotic division in synthetic amphidiploids, arising of different types of allelic combinations in the segregating backcrossed populations was reported [20]. Thus, the introgression lines are of importance and need further evaluation, as they might harbor currently undetected genes useful for the improvement of groundnut. Seeds of the introgression lines are available on request from the University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Dharwad (Ramesh S. Bhat). Several wild species from the section Arachis had been successfully crossed with A. hypogaea and fertile hybrids [14], [15] and [16] and various backcross introgression lines were obtained [21]. Earlier Arachis glabrata Benth. from section Rhizomatosae was crossed with A.