The injected dye was mostly located in the hippocampus


The injected dye was mostly located in the hippocampus

CA1–3 region when injection time was longer TSA HDAC than 30 min (Supporting Information Fig. 4). In the water maze assessment, LPS injection resulted in neurologic deterioration at 3 days, with little improvement for up to 21 days. This deterioration of neurological function was restored by IL-13 injection (Fig. 6B and Supporting Information Fig. 5). Furthermore, injection of IL-13-neutralized antibody caused a similar neurologic outcome as that of the LPS group. Injection of IL-13 did not cause significant neurologic dysfunction compared with the PBS group. On the day of the worst neurologic dysfunction (3 days after stereotactic injection), the brain was harvested to assess the distribution of microglial/monocyte and neuronal survival (Fig. 6). LPS injection increased the deposition of CD11b with a reciprocal decrease in NeuN-positive

cells. Co-injection of LPS with IL-13 Sorafenib in vivo decreased the number of CD11b positive cells and further restored the number of NeuN positive cells. Ablation of IL-13 with IL-13 NA exerted the same effect as LPS injection. LPS injection increased the expression of C/EBP-α and C/EBP-β in CD11b positive cells, while the combination of LPS and IL-13 only caused the expression of C/EBP-α in CD11b positive cells. The combined effect of LPS and IL-13 in C/EBP-α and C/EBP-β was abolished by IL-13 NA. Hence, microglia/macrophage (CD11b positive cells) was activated by LPS injection and IL-13 further aggravated the microglia/macrophage cell loss. Attenuation of microglia/macrophage cells increased the number of neuronal cells and provided a more favorable neuro-behavioral response in animals. A previous study reported that IL-13-enhanced ER stress-related calpain activation plays an important role in the downregulation of PPAR-γ-regulated

HO-1 expression in activated microglia. The present study shows that IL-13 enhances COX-2/PGE2 expression through PLA2 and C/EBP-α regulation. More importantly, IL-13 simultaneously augments ER stress and calpain activity, and cleavage of C/EBP-β and PPAR-γ expression results in aggravation of activated microglia death. SSR128129E Finally, this study is the first to demonstrate that administration of IL-13 in activated microglia in an animal model enhances C/EBP-α expression, but abolished C/EBP-β expression, which diminishes neuronal cell loss and damage in regions associated with memory and the hippocampal CA3 region. The ER is a major component of the protein quality control system. Emerging evidence indicates a potent association between accumulation of protein aggregates and ER stress induction in various important neurodegenerative conditions. Previous reports have shown that calpain inhibitors have impressive neuroprotective effects in in vivo models of cerebral ischemia.

7 Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality

Initiative: No recommen

7 Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality

Initiative: No recommendation. UK Renal Association: No recommendation. Canadian Society of Nephrology: No recommendation. European Best Practice Guidelines: No recommendation. International Guidelines: No recommendation. No recommendations. Long-term, prospective and retrospective studies on food safety practices and incidence of food-borne infections among kidney transplant recipients may help determine the most appropriate methods of prevention of such infections. Maria Chan, Karen Fry, Aditi Patwardhan, Catherine Ryan Navitoclax in vivo and Fidye Westgarth have no relevant financial affiliations that would cause a conflict of interest according to the conflict of interest statement set down by CARI. These guidelines were developed under a project funded by the Greater Metropolitan Clinical Taskforce, New South Wales. “
“It remains unclear whether

long-term daily icodextrin use can decrease technique failure and improve survival in PD patients. The aim of the present study was to Selisistat in vitro investigate whether icodextrin use, once daily, can decrease technique failure and prolong patient survival in incident PD patients. Incident PD patients who survived more than 90 days were recruited from the China Medical University Hospital, Taiwan, between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2011. All patients were followed Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) until transfer to hemodialysis (HD), renal transplantation, transfer to another center, death, or December 31, 2011. A total of 306 incident PD patients (89 icodextrin users, 217 icodextrin non-users) were recruited during the study period. Icodextrin users were more likely to have hypertension, diabetes and high or high-average peritoneal transport compared with non-users. During the follow-up

period, 43 patients were transferred to HD: 7 (7.87%) of the icodextrin group, and 36 (16.59%) of the non-icodextrin group. Thirty-two patients died during the follow-up period: 5 (5.62%) of the icodextrin group, and 27 (12.44%) of the non-icodextrin group. Icodextrin use was significantly associated with a better prognosis, in terms of technique failure (adjusted HR= 0.32; 95% CI = 0.14-0.72). With regard to patient survival, icodextrin use (adjusted HR= 0.33; 95% CI = 0.12-0.87) was associated with a significantly lower risk of death. The use of icodextrin once daily may decrease technique failure and improve survival in incident PD patients.

Beads and cell debris were removed by 5 min centrifugation at 100

Beads and cell debris were removed by 5 min centrifugation at 1000 g, followed by 20 min of centrifugation at 10 000 g. Lysates were cleared by ultracentrifugation for 1 hr at 100 000 g, and supernatants were then ultracentrifuged for 5 hr at 100 000 g.21 Proteasome-containing pellets were resuspended in 0·5 ml homogenization buffer [50 mm Tris–HCl (pH 7·5), 100 mm KCl, 15% glycerol]. Protein concentration was determined using the bicinchononic acid protocol (Pierce, Rockford, IL). The chymotrypsin-like and trypsin-like activities of purified proteasomes

were tested using the fluorogenic substrates Suc-LLVY-AMC and Boc-LRR-AMC, respectively, as previously described.21 Fluorescence was determined using a fluorimeter (Spectrafluor plus; selleck products Tecan, Salzburg, Austria). Proteasome activity is expressed as arbitrary fluorescence units. In vitro degradation of HPVGEADYFEYHQEGG (HPV + Selleck Inhibitor Library 5) was performed using 150 μg of the peptide and 150 μg purified proteasomes in 450 μl activity buffer at 37°. At different time-points, 80-μl samples were collected, and the reaction was stopped by adding 2 volumes of ethanol at 0°. 240 μl of digestion mixtures were centrifuged at 500 g, and 80 μl of supernatant was collected and analysed by HPLC.22 Peptides were synthesized by the solid-phase method and purified to > 98% purity by HPLC, as previously described.23 Structural verification

was performed by elemental and amino acid analysis and mass spectrometry. Peptide stocks were prepared in DMSO at 10−2 m concentration and

maintained at −20°. Equal amounts of proteins or equal amounts of purified proteasomes were loaded onto a 12% SDS–PAGE and electroblotted onto Protran nitrocellulose membranes (Schleicher & Schuell Microscience, Keene, NH). Blots were probed with antibodies specific for α, LMP2, LMP7, multicatalytic endopeptidase complex 1 (MECL1) subunits, proteasome activator Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease 28 (PA28) α-β, 19S, antigen peptide transporter 1 (TAP1) and TAP2, and developed by enhanced chemiluminescence (Amersham Biosciences, Uppsala, Sweden).22 Monocyte-depleted PBLs from HLA B35-restricted EBV-seropositive subjects were plated in RPMI-1640 containing 10% fetal calf serum (HyClone; Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.), at 3 × 106 cells per well in 24-well plates, and stimulated with either EBNA1-derived HPVGEADYFEY (HPV, amino acids 407–417) or EBNA3-derived YPLHEQHGM (YPL, amino acids 458–466) peptide. Cultures were restimulated after 7 and 14 days, and the medium was supplemented from day 8 with 10 U/ml recombinant interleukin-2 (Chiron). On days 14 and 21, T-cell cultures were tested for CTL activity by cytotoxicity assay. The EBV specificities and HLA class I restriction of the CTL preparations were then investigated by testing their cytotoxic activities against PHA-activated blasts.13 Cytotoxic activity was tested by a standard 5-hr 51Cr-release assay, as previously described.

bakeri by passage in naïve and immune hosts (131–133) Murine hos

bakeri by passage in naïve and immune hosts (131–133). Murine host resistance is linked to genes located both within and outside of the MHC (132). Selection in immune hosts tends to reduce the immunogenicity Opaganib of the parasite, as measured by eosinophilia, lymphocytosis in the spleen and regional lymph nodes and antibody response (131). We have found that H. bakeri establishes long-term primary infections of at least 120 days duration in CBA/Ca and BALB/c mice (76,77). Host resistance in primary infections is not enhanced by overexpression of IL-5(76), and conversely, the intensity of infection is not enhanced by deletion of IL-5 (69) or eotaxin (76). Although an eosinophilic inflammatory response surrounds

larvae embedded in the duodenal wall and irradiated larvae appear to induce resistance at this stage of infection, these results suggest that eosinophils play little role in protecting against this parasite. Wild-type FVB/N mice, which are highly resistant to N. brasiliensis, most likely in the pre-lung phase, are no more resistant to H. bakeri than WT CBA/Ca mice (77). Our studies with H. bakeri were terminated after more than 4 months, when egg production in WT, eotaxin−/− and STAT6−/− mice was 50–100% of that seen in the first three

weeks of infection (76), so we have yet to determine whether expulsion is affected by the deletion of these genes. H. bakeri is generally considered to be capable of inducing strong immunosuppression (134–136) check and so deletion of eotaxin or STAT6 may have little additional impact. As a parasite largely restricted to the gut, it is also unlikely to be 5-Fluoracil clinical trial exposed to the same array of mechanisms that protect against N. brasiliensis and S. ratti. T. canis elicits strong peripheral blood eosinophilia and eosinophil-rich granulomas can surround larvae. Although anti-IL-5 antibody treatment can suppress eosinophilia in mice infected with T. canis, it does not increase larval load in the liver (137), an observation supported by the observation that IL-5−/− mice are no more susceptible to T. canis than WT controls (138). In conjunction with Jim Parsons (Victorian Institute of Animal Science), we have shown that

in IL-5 Tg mice infected with T. canis, the numbers of larvae recovered from liver, brain and muscle are comparable to those in WT littermates (64). It would seem then that T. canis is neither enhanced nor disadvantaged by eosinophilia and larvae are resistant to damage and killing by eosinophils, though these cells may contribute to lung pathology (138). Eosinophilia is suppressed in T. canis-infected pregnant and lactating dogs and this may allow larvae to escape granulomas, thereby facilitating transmission to offspring. Although T. canis does not suppress eosinophilia in our murine models, excretory-secretory proteins released from T. canis larvae in vitro do impact on eosinophil behaviour and protective innate anti-nematode resistance (139).

) for determination of the flanking

regions of the insert

) for determination of the flanking

regions of the insertion. Genomic DNA of mutants were prepared as described above. The first PCR reaction was performed with eight different primer pairs in which one of the DW-ACPs was combined with EZTN-F or EZTN-R. PCR amplification was carried out at 94 °C for 5 min, 42 °C for 1 min, 72 °C for 2 min, and then 30 cycles of 94 °C for 40 s, 55 °C for 40 s, and 72 °C for 1 min, followed by 72 °C for 7 min. The first nested PCR was performed using primer pairs of EZ-Tn5 Tnp-specific nested primers KAN2-1or KAN2-3R (Table 1) and a DW-ACP for nested PCR (DW-ACPN: Selleck ITF2357 5′-ACPN-GGTC-3′) provided by the kit (Seegene Inc.). Two microliters of the first PCR product was used as template DNA. PCR amplification was carried out at 94 °C for 5 min, and then 35 cycles of 94 °C for 40 s, 60 °C for 40 s, and 72 °C for 1 min, followed by 72 °C for 7 min. The second

nested PCR was performed using Raf targets primer pairs of EZ-Tn5 Tnp-specific second nested primers (KAN-2FP1 or KAN-2RP1 provided by the EZ-Tn5 Tnp Kit (Epicentre Biotechnologies, Table 1) and a universal primer (5′-TCACAGAAGTATGCCAAGCGA-3′) provided by the kit (Seegene Inc.). One microliter of the first nested PCR product was used as template DNA. Conditions for PCR were as follows: 94 °C for 5 min, then 35 cycles at 94 °C for 40 s, 60 °C for 40 s, and 72 °C for 1 min, followed by 72 °C for 7 min. The PCR products were electrophoresed, isolated, and cloned using the TOPO TA Cloning system (Invitrogen). Plasmids containing the

PCR products were purified using the QIAprep Spin MiniPrep Kit (Qiagen Science, MD). The PCR products were then sequenced using the Applied Biosystems 3730 DNA Analyzer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) with a pair of M13 primers. The DNA sequences obtained were converted into amino acid sequences using genetyx ver. 7.0 software (Genetyx Thiamet G Co. Ltd, Tokyo, Japan). Homology searches of amino acid sequences were performed using the fasta algorithm in the DDBJ (Mishima, Japan). The sequence of the flanking regions of the EZ-Tn5 Tnp insertion has been submitted to the DDBJ nucleotide sequence database (DDBJ accession: AB377402). Among 486 mutants, we found only one mutant (strain 455) that had lost the ability to produce exopolysaccharide and form meshwork-like structures. The sequencing analysis of the flanking regions of the transposon insertion revealed that the transposon was inserted into an ORF highly homologous to wzt in the per cluster of Y. enterocolitica serotype O:9 (Lubeck et al., 2003; Skurnik, 2003; Jacobsen et al., 2005).

The results from the studies were each independently significant,

The results from the studies were each independently significant, with P values ranging from <0·01

selleck chemical to 0·04. Because each study was reported as independently significant, we did not perform a formal meta-analysis on these data. Serum MBL-level data from active TB versus controls are shown graphically in Fig. 4. The consistent finding of higher MBL serum levels in patients with TB than uninfected controls suggests strongly that high MBL levels are associated with active TB disease. Our meta-analysis of accessible, published data has demonstrated no statistically significant association between MBL2 genotype and pulmonary TB infection. Review of studies considering MBL levels has, however, demonstrated a consistent increase in MBL levels in patients with tuberculosis. There are a number find more of mechanisms that could account for this discrepancy between MBL levels and MBL2 genotype and their associations with TB. First, MBL2 genotype involving structural gene polymorphisms alone is a poor predictor of serum MBL

levels. Therefore the direct assessment of MBL phenotype through measurement of blood levels may be the best way to reveal an association between MBL sufficiency and predisposition to TB from the available data. Perhaps the most plausible explanation, however, is that MBL is elevated in active tuberculosis infection as part of an acute-phase reaction. If this is so, then MBL would not appear to be involved significantly in host susceptibility to tuberculosis infection. In an attempt to investigate these alternative explanations, we performed additional ad hoc subgroup analysis on studies that reported complete MBL2 genotypic profile, including promoter regions. The small sample of this subgroup analysis does

not permit significant conclusions to be drawn from the lack of association between complete MBL2 genotype and TB susceptibility; however, were such results repeated in Amylase larger studies it may provide additional support for the hypothesis that MBL is not involved in tuberculosis infection and elevated MBL levels seen in patients with TB represent its acute-phase response. Although some studies have suggested that MBL may not have a significant overall acute-phase response, patients with wild-type MBL2 genotypes have been generally found to have raised MBL levels in this setting [30]. This is consistent with the study populations included in this meta-analysis, where the proportion of patients homozygous for wild-type MBL2 accounted for 92% of the populations where both MBL levels and genotypes were available. In these populations, therefore, the acute-phase properties of MBL are likely to be dominant. This contrasts with other studies of the acute-phase change seen in septic patients who had a higher frequency of MBL2 variant alleles [36]. Support for this conclusion can be seen in studies where MBL levels have been studied in the acute-phase reaction. Thiel et al.

Paradoxically, IFN-γ-producing cells were more prevalent than IL-

Paradoxically, IFN-γ-producing cells were more prevalent than IL-17-producing cells in CNS mononuclear fractions from CXCR3−/− and CXCL10−/−, as well as WT, mice with MOG-induced EAE (Fig. 1D and H). Enrichment of IFN-γ producers within the CNS could be secondary to preferential trafficking, survival,

and/or expansion of Th1 over Th17 cells. If so, the data in Figure 1 would insinuate that MOG-specific Th1 cells cross the blood–brain barrier and are retained in the brain and SC by a CXCR3/CXCL10-independent mechanism. Alternatively, the majority of CNS-infiltrating IFN-γ-producing T cells could represent transformed Th17 cells that Selleckchem Raf inhibitor acquire Th1-like characteristics within the CNS microenvironment (the so-called “ex-Th17” cells) [28]. Th17 cells have been shown to access the CNS via a CCR6-CCL20-dependent pathway, which could explain the dispensability of CXCR3-CXC chemokine interactions for the development of IFN-γ-rich neuroinflammatory infiltrates in MOG-immunized mice [26]. In support of the latter hypothesis, mRNA for IL-17A, RORγt, and

CCL20 was upregulated in the CNS of CXCR3−/−, CXCL10−/−, and WT mice with EAE (Fig. 1I and J). Next, we sought to directly compare the relative dependence of MOG-specific Th1 and Th17 cells on CXCR3/ELR− CXC chemokine interactions for their encephalitogenicity. MOG-primed CXCR3−/− T cells exhibited similar cytokine profiles to their WT counterparts following culture under either Th1- or Th17-polarizing HM781-36B cell line conditions (Fig. 2A). As expected, MOG-primed, IL-23-polarized CXCR3−/− Th17 cells were

as efficient as WT Th17 cells in trafficking to the CNS and inducing clinical EAE following adoptive transfer into naïve syngeneic WT hosts (Supporting Information Fig. 1 and Fig. 2B). Surprisingly, IL-12-polarized CXCR3−/− Th1 cells showed no defect in EAE induction (Fig. 2C). In fact, recipients of CXCR3−/− Th1 cells underwent a prolonged disease course with attenuated remission compared to recipients of WT Th1 cells. CXCR3−/− Th1 cells accumulated in the CNS in comparable numbers to WT Th1 donor cells, and the majority of Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase CXCR3−/− donor T cells in the SC were IFN-γ+ (Fig. 2D). CXCL10 is a dominant CXCR3 ligand in the CNS of the EAE models employed in our studies; C57BL/6 mice do not produce functional CXCL11 protein and CXCL10 is significantly upregulated in the inflamed CNS of MOG-immunized mice (Fig. 2E). In parallel experiments, CXCL10−/− and WT hosts exhibited a comparable degree of susceptibility to EAE mediated by WT Th1-polarized, MOG-specific effector T cells (Fig. 2F). Similar to WT recipients of CXCR3−/− Th1 cells, CXCL10−/− recipients of WT Th1 cells experienced a relatively severe disease course. Mice that are genetically deficient in an immunological molecule can develop compensatory pathways as they mature.

These findings suggest that VSL may have both domain-general and

These findings suggest that VSL may have both domain-general and domain-specific associations with language learning. “
“Recent work has shown that young children can use fine phonetic detail during the recognition of isolated and sentence-final words from early in lexical development. The present study investigates 24-month-olds’ word recognition in sentence-medial position in two experiments using an Intermodal Preferential Looking paradigm. In Experiment 1, French toddlers detect word-final voicing mispronunciations (e.g., buz [byz] for bus [bys] “bus”), and they compensate for native voicing assimilations (e.g., buz devant toi [buzdəvɑ̃twa] “bus in front of you”) in the

middle of sentences. Similarly, English toddlers detect word-final voicing mispronunciations (e.g., sheeb for sheep) in Talazoparib clinical trial Experiment 2, but they do not compensate for illicit voicing assimilations (e.g., sheeb there). Thus, French and English 24-month-olds can take into account fine phonetic detail even if words are presented

in the middle of sentences, and French toddlers show language-specific compensation abilities for pronunciation variation caused by native voicing assimilation. “
“Infants start pointing systematically to objects or events around their first birthday. It has been proposed that infants point to an event to share their selleck kinase inhibitor appreciation of it with others. In this study, we tested another hypothesis, according to which infants’ pointing could also serve as an epistemic request directed to the adult. Thus, infants’ Amylase motivation for pointing could include the expectation that adults would provide new information about the referent. In two experiments, an adult reacted to 12-month-olds’ pointing gestures by exhibiting “Informing” or “Sharing” behavior. In response, infants

pointed more frequently across trials in the Informing than in the Sharing condition. This suggests that the feedback that contained new information matched infants’ expectations more than mere attention sharing. Such a result is consistent with the idea that not just the comprehension but also the production of early communicative signals is tuned to assist infants’ learning from others. “
“Non-verbal referential communication is impaired in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the development of difficulties with referential communication in the younger siblings of children with ASD (High-Risk Siblings)—and the degree to which early referential communication predicts later autism symptomatology—is not clear. We modeled the early developmental trajectories of three types of referential communication: responding to joint attention (RJA), initiating joint attention (IJA), and initiating behavioral requests (IBR) across 8, 10, 12, 15, and 18 months of age in High-Risk Siblings (n = 40) and the infant siblings of children without ASD (Low-Risk Siblings; n = 21).

1c) The nucleotide sequence of the amplicon was identical to tha

1c). The nucleotide sequence of the amplicon was identical to that obtained earlier, suggesting that the bird had been persistently infected with ABV5 for at least eight months without developing clinical signs of PDD. Although we tried to isolate ABV5 from the fecal sample with QT6 cells (Japanese quail fibroblast), we did not detect ABV RNA and protein after one month’s passage. Because only partial sequences of the N and M genes of ABV5 have been GS-1101 chemical structure established so far, we tried to determine the nucleotide sequence from the N to M gene (Fig. 2). We carried out PCR with MH192 and 193 primers and amplified the target region

successfully. Sequence analysis showed that the genomic structure of ABV5 (Acc. No. AB519144) is almost identical to that of other bornaviruses. Interestingly, however, the upstream sequence of the X of ABV5 appears to differ from those of other bornaviruses (Fig ALK inhibitor 2). The bornavirus X

and P genes are transcribed as a bicistronic X/P mRNA (11). In BDV, a mammalian bornavirus, the 5′ UTR of the X/P mRNA contains a short uORF, which plays a critical role in translational regulation of the X and P (12–16). On the other hand, 22 nucleotides in this region are absent from ABV2 and 4, resulting in a lack of the uORF (17). Interestingly, although the 5′ UTR sequence of ABV5 X/P mRNA is almost the same length as that of BDV, only the shorter uORF is found in ABV5 (Fig. 2). These observations suggest that, in ABV5, the strategy for regulation of expression of X and P proteins differs from those of other bornaviruses. Of note: during the preparation of this manuscript, a novel genotype of ABV was detected in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) (18). Intriguingly, the 5′ UTR sequence of the X/P mRNA of the Canada geese ABV was shown to encode an uORF three amino acids longer than ABV5. It would be of interest to determine the nucleotide sequences of other genotypes of ABV and to compare the mechanisms of regulation of X and P gene expression among bornaviruses.

In this study, although we detected ABV5 RNA in an Eclectus Amobarbital roratus with FPD, it remains unclear whether ABV5 infection was the cause of the disease. Thus far, several possible causes of FPD have been proposed: infection with microorganisms and parasites, organopathy and psychogenic factors (19). Intriguingly, one of three birds reportedly developed FPD after injection of a brain homogenate containing ABV (7). In the case of BDV infection, two types of clinical course have been identified in a rat model (20). Adult rats inoculated with BDV develop immune cell mediated fatal non-suppurative encephalitis, which is histopathologically similar to PDD. On the other hand, in neonatal rats BDV causes chronic infections, which lead to a milder behavioral syndrome without overt encephalitis. Therefore, it is plausible that ABV infection can cause milder diseases such as FPD.

Moreover, combination therapy using cisplatin and human leucocyte

Moreover, combination therapy using cisplatin and human leucocyte antigen-A24-restricted human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1)-1084 and VEGFR2-169 in patients with advanced or recurrent adenocarcinoma of the stomach showed that the disease control rate (partial and stable disease) was 100% after two cycles of the combination therapy [25]. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response to leishmanial antigens has been widely used to assess the level of host protection to the disease [26]. It has been well established that induction of a DTH response is mediated via Th1 cell as it secretes IFN-γ which

is expressed during macrophage stimulation Kinase Inhibitor Library solubility dmso for parasite killing [27]. The DTH responses to leishmanin were apparent during L. donovani infection in BALB/c mice as evident by an increase in the foot pad swelling after injection of leishmanin. The increase was much higher when the animals were treated with immunochemotherapy than the groups KPT-330 supplier of animals treated with

chemotherapy or immunotherapy alone. This suggests that the mice treated with cisplatin + 78 kDa with or without adjuvant (MPL-A) developed a strong cell-mediated immune response indicating that drug treatment followed by vaccine therapy was helpful in reversal of immunosuppression caused by the parasite. Earlier studies from our laboratory reported an increased DTH response in animals treated with low dose of cisplatin [14]. Correlation between DTH responses and parasite load has also been reported [14, 15]. This was evident from our results where a strong positive correlation was observed between enhanced DTH response and reduced parasite load. The immunological response was further characterized by analysing the

distribution of IgG1 and IgG2a specific antibodies in the serum samples of infected and treated BALB/c mice. Production of IgG2a is normally associated with IFN-γ secretion and the development of a Th1 immune response. However, in contrast, production of the IgG1 is normally associated with IL-4 secretion and the development of Th2 type of response. The treated animals revealed higher IgG2a and lower IgG1 levels than the infected controls. However, maximum levels of IgG2a and minimum levels of IgG1 were observed in animals Farnesyltransferase treated with cisplatin + 78 kDa + MPL-A than those animals that are treated with cisplatin alone or 78 kDa/78 kDa + MPL-A alone. It has been shown earlier from our laboratory that immunization of mice with 78 kDa + MPL-A resulted in significant increase in IgG2a response [6]. Moreover, a significant reduction in specific antibody titres was observed after treatment with immunochemotherapy (Glucantime + Leish-110f/MPL-SE) in dogs suffering from canine leishmaniasis [18]. Th1 and Th2 cell lymphocytes are important mediators in generating immunity to leishmaniasis and can be distinguished by the cytokines they secrete.