Disclosures: Kazuaki Chayama – Consulting: Abbvie; Grant/Research Support: Dainippon Sumitomo, Chugai, Mitsubishi Tanabe, DAIICHI SANKYO, Toray, BMS, MSD; Speaking and Teaching: Chugai, Mitsubishi Tanabe, DAIICHI SANKYO, KYO-RIN, buy Ku-0059436 Nihon Medi-Physics, BMS, Dainippon Sumitomo, MSD, ASKA, Astellas, AstraZeneca, Eisai, Olympus, GlaxoSmithKline, ZERIA, Bayer, Minophagen, JANSSEN, JIMRO, TSUMURA, Otsuka, Taiho, Nippon Kayaku, Nippon Shinyaku, Takeda, AJINOMOTO, Meiji Seika, Toray The following people have nothing to disclose: C. Nelson Hayes, Hiromi Abe, Sakura Akamatsu, Nobuhiko Hiraga, Michio Imamura, Masataka Tsuge, Daiki Miki,
Hiroshi Aikata, Hidenori Ochi, Yuji Ishida, Chise Tateno Purpose The protective role of invariant Natural Killer T cells (iNKT cells) against hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains controversial. We sought to clarify the role of peripheral iNKT cells during chronic HBV infection. Methods 60 patients with chronic HBV infection were categorized into immune tolerance phase group (n=16), immune tolerance phase group(n=19) and inactive carrier phase
group(n=25). 20 healthy controls were enrolled as healthy control group. In addition, another 21 HBeAg-positive patients were enrolled, and they were administrated with entecavir (0.5 mg/d) for 6 months. The peripheral bloods from all subjects were GSK2126458 chemical structure collected. The percentages of iNKT cells and the levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 expressed by iNKT cells were examined by flow cytometry. Serum HBV DNA was measured by the real-time PCR. The serum alanine transami-nase levels were assayed by DXC 800 Fully-auto Bio-Chemistry Analyzer. The relationships between serum HBV DNA and ALT levels and the percentages of iNKT cells and its IFN-γ and IL-4 levels were analyzed. Results Circulating IFN-γ-producing iNKT cells gradually increased, learn more and IL-4-producing iNKT cells gradually decreased from immune tolerance phase, immune tolerance phase to inactive carrier phase during chronic infection. The frequency of iNKT cells and its IFN-γ level were reversely correlated
to viral load. The level of IL-4 expressed by iNKT cells was positively correlated to viral load and the serum ala-nine transaminase levels. After anti-virus therapy, the IFN-γ-pro-ducing iNKT cells were increased and IL-4-producing iNKT cells were decreased. Conclusions Circulating iNKT cells exhibit a function skewing and play dual immunoregulatory roles during chronic HBV infection. On one hand, iNKT cells contribute to the clearance of HBV by expressing IFN-γ, and on the other hand, iNKT cells induce the liver injury by expressing IL-4. Disclosures: Man Li – Employment: Shuguang Hospital Affiliated to Traditional Chinese Medicine The following people have nothing to disclose: Zhen-Hua Zhou, Xue-Hua Sun, Yue-Qiu Gao Background and objectives: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is the most commonly used parameter for evaluating liver impairment.