Conclusions In summary, the findings of the present study have shown that hesperidin supplementation per se or in combination with swimming exercise protocols, continuous and interval, potentiates Selleckchem PRIMA-1MET improvement of the biochemical profile and antioxidant biomarkers evidencing that the use of citrus
flavonoids may be beneficial to reduce risk factors for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, hesperidin supplementation, in conjunction with continuous selleck kinase inhibitor swimming, presented hypolipidemic effects and could be useful as an antioxidative compound to protect against oxidative damages during this type of exercise; on the other hand, hesperidin plus interval swimming exercise can help reduce increased levels of glucose in the blood serum. Acknowledgements We are grateful to the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Brazil,
for the scholarship to Grace Dourado. We also thank to Hayashibara, Japan, for providing glucosyl hesperidin for NVP-BGJ398 solubility dmso the experiments. References 1. Thompson PD, Buchner D, Pina IL, Balady GJ: American heart association council on clinical cardiology subcommittee on exercise, rehabilitation, and prevention; American heart association council on nutrition, physical activity, and metabolism subcommittee on physical activity. Exercise and physical activity in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: a statement from the council on clinical cardiology (subcommittee on exercise, rehabilitation, and prevention) and the council on nutrition, physical activity, and metabolism (subcommittee on physical activity). Circulation 2003,107(24):3109–3116.PubMedCrossRef 2. Jeppesen J, Kiens B: Regulation and limitations to fatty acid oxidation during exercise. Phosphatidylinositol diacylglycerol-lyase J Physiol 2012, 590:1059–1068.PubMed 3. de Araujo GG, Papoti M, Dos Reis IG, de Mello MA, Gobatto CA: Physiological responses during linear periodized
training in rats. Eur J Appl Physiol 2012,112(3):839–852.PubMedCrossRef 4. Rogatto GP, Luciano E: Effects of high intensity training on glucose metabolism. Rev Bras Ativ Fís Saúde 2001, 6:39–6. 5. Durstine JL, Grandjean PW, Cox CA, Thompson PD: Lipids, lipoproteins, and exercise. J Cardiopulm Rehabil 2002,22(6):385–398.PubMedCrossRef 6. Botezelli JD, Cambri LT, Ghezzi AC, Dalia RA, M Scariot PP, Ribeiro C, Voltarelli FA, Mello MA: Different exercise protocols improve metabolic syndrome markers, tissue triglycerides content and antioxidant status in rats. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2011, 3:35.PubMedCrossRef 7. Frajacomo FT, Demarzo MM, Fernandes CR, Martinello F, Bachur JA, Uyemura SA, Perez SE, Garcia SB: The effects of high-intensity resistance exercise on the blood lipid profile and liver function in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2012,37(3):448–454.PubMedCrossRef 8. Sachdev S, Davies KJ: Production, detection, and adaptive responses to free radicals in exercise. Free Radic Biol Med 2008,44(2):215–223.