23 per 100,000 population during 2010.7 Meningococcal pneumonia is infrequent, is estimated to occur in <5%–15% of patients with invasive meningococcal disease, although the precise incidence is difficult to establish because of uncertainty in establishing the cause of pneumonia.2 and 3 Serogroup Y is more likely than other serogroups to be associated with pneumonia.3 Blood or pleural cultures that yield N. meningitidis establish the diagnosis with certainty. Meningococcal colonization of the nasopharyngeal mucosae is a critical initial step in
the pathogenesis of systemic MAPK Inhibitor Library infection. Several cell surface structures have been identified that function as adhesins in attachment of meningococci to respiratory epithelial cells. After nasopharyngeal colonization, microaspiration of upper respiratory tract secretions containing N. meningitidis probably occurs, with the subsequent
development of pneumonia. Which virulence factors are operative in the production of lung infection and whether they are unique to serogroup Y meningococci are unknown. In addition, the conditions accounting for the increase in serogroup Y infections remain undefined. 2 Other authors have described a predilection of serogroup Y meningococcus for causing respiratory illness, including a large outbreak of predominantly respiratory. Smilack et al. reported a military outbreak that included 12 cases of serogroup Y meningococcal disease (SYMD) among members of an C59 wnt molecular weight army combat training unit. In this series, 5 patients had meningococcemia, 5 had meningitis, and 2 presented with primary meningococcal pneumonia.4 Subsequently, a case series of SYMD was reported in a group of US Air Force recruits in 1971–1974.6 In that series, the predominant manifestation of serogroup Y disease was respiratory; 68 (77%) of 88 patients had meningococcal pneumonia, documented by transtracheal Edoxaban aspirates in 94% of the cases. Only 4 (6%) of the 68 patients with pneumonia had positive blood cultures.5
Among the patients with pneumonia, the response to antibiotic therapy was prompt; 93% of the patients were afebrile within 3 days of antibiotic therapy.2 The outcome of meningococcal pneumonia when treated is generally favorable, but the diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion, testing of respiratory samples, and blood cultures. In conclusion, we report a case of bacteraemic pneumonia caused by N. meningitidis serogroup Y with reduced susceptibility to penicillin in an adult patient. All authors report no conflicts of interest relevant to this study. “
“The recent report on “Red Ginseng and H5N1 influenza infection” in this journal is very interesting . Park et al  noted that “the diet with the immune-enhancing Red Ginseng could help humans to overcome the infections by HP H5N1 influenza virus.