We estimate the vertical extent of the retinally fixed ‘search zones’ as < 0.6°
at 14° eccentricity, suggesting that most V1 neurons must be tuned to near-zero vertical disparity. We also show that performance on our stereo task at 14° eccentricity is affected by the pattern of vertical disparity beyond 20° eccentricity, even though this is irrelevant to the task. Performance is best when vertical disparities within and beyond 20° eccentricity both indicate the same convergence angle (even if not the physical angle), than when the pattern of vertical disparity across the visual field RAD001 chemical structure is globally inconsistent with any single convergence angle. This novel effect of the periphery may indicate cooperative interactions between disparity-selective neurons activated by the same eye postures. “
“We reported previously that plateau potentials buy FK866 mediated by extrasynaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) can be induced either by synaptic stimulation in the presence of glutamate transporter antagonist or by iontophoresis of NMDA in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. To examine whether the plateau potentials are accompanied by an elevation of intracellular Ca2+ and to determine the source of Ca2+ elevation, we performed Ca2+ imaging during the plateau potential. Neurons were loaded with Ca2+ indicator fluo-4, and the plateau potentials were
generated either synaptically in the presence of glutamate transporter antagonist or by iontophoretically applying NMDA. We have found that a transient elevation in intracellular Ca2+ accompanies the plateau potential. The synaptically
induced plateau potential and the Ca2+ elevation were blocked by 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid (5,7-dCK), an antagonist for the glycine-binding sites of NMDAR. A mixture of Cd2+ and tetrodotoxin did not block NMDA-induced plateau potentials, but completely abolished 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase the accompanying Ca2+ elevation in both the presence and absence of Mg2+ ions in the bathing solution. The NMDA-induced plateau potential was blocked by further adding 5,7-dCK. Our results show that the NMDAR-mediated plateau potential is accompanied by elevation of intracellular Ca2+ that is primarily caused by the influx of Ca2+ through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. “
“Previous studies indicate that the astroglial glutamate–glutamine shuttle may be involved in acute pulpal inflammatory pain by influencing central sensitization induced in nociceptive neurons in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis [the medullary dorsal horn (MDH)] by application of an inflammatory irritant to the rat tooth pulp. The aim of this study was to test if intrathecal application to the rat medulla of the astroglial glutamine synthetase inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (MSO) can influence the central sensitization of MDH nociceptive neurons and the animal’s associated behaviour that are manifested in a model of chronic pulpitis pain induced by exposure of a mandibular molar pulp.