J Microbiol 2008, 46:441–447 PubMedCrossRef 48 Skindersoe ME, Al

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TC via homologous recombination Allelic replacement was confirme

TC via homologous recombination. Allelic replacement was confirmed by PCR with the tatC primers P1 and P2 using Platinum® Pfx DNA Polymerase. These primers yielded PCR products in the mutant strains

that were 1.2-kb larger than the amplicons obtained in the wild-type (WT) isolates O35E and O12E due to the presence of the EZ-TN5 < KAN-2 > TN in tatC. To construct mutations in the tatA and tatB genes of M. catarrhalis O35E, the plasmid pRB.Tat.1 was first mutagenized with the EZ-TN5™ In-Frame Linker 4SC-202 solubility dmso insertion Kit (Epicentre® Illumina®) and introduced into Transformax™ EPI300™ electrocompetent cells. Plasmid DNA was isolated from several camR (specified by the vector pCC1) and kanR (specified by the EZ-TN5 < Not Enzalutamide cost I/KAN-3 > TN) clones and sequenced to determine the sites of insertion of the TN. This approach identified the plasmids pRB.TatA:kan and pRB.TatB:kan, which contained the EZ-TN5 < Not I/KAN-3 > TN at nt 90 of the tatA ORF and nt 285 of the tatB ORF, respectively. These plasmids were then introduced into M. catarrhalis strain O35E by natural transformation as previously described [34]. The resulting kanR strains were screened by PCR using primers specific selleck products for tatA (P3 and P4) and tatB (P5 and P6), which produced DNA fragments that were 1.2-kb larger in size in mutant

strains when compared to the WT strain O35E because of the insertion of the EZ-TN5 < Not I/KAN-3 > TN in tatA and tatB. This strategy yielded the mutant strains Tacrolimus (FK506) O35E.TA and O35E.TB. To construct a mutation in the bro-2 gene of M. catarrhalis O35E, plasmid pRN.Bro11 was mutagenized with the EZ-TN5™ In-Frame Linker Insertion Kit as described above. Plasmids were isolated from kanR camR colonies and sequenced to identify constructs containing

the EZ-TN5 < Not I/KAN-3 > TN near the middle of the bro-2 ORF. This approach yielded the construct pRB.Bro:kan, which was introduced in M. catarrhalis O35E by natural transformation. Transformants were selected for resistance to kanamycin and then tested for their ability to grow on agar plates containing the β-lactam antibiotic carbenicillin. KanR and carbenicillin sensitive (cabS) strains were further analyzed by PCR using primers P9 and P10 to verify allelic exchange of the bro-2 gene. These primers produced a 1-kb DNA fragment in the WT strain O35E and a 2.2-kb in the mutant O35E.Bro, which is consistent with insertion of the 1.2-kb EZ-TN5 < Not I/KAN-3 > TN in bro-2. Site-directed mutagenesis of the M. catarrhalis bro-2 gene The bro-2 ORF of M. catarrhalis O35E harbored by plasmid pRN.Bro11 was mutated using the QuikChange Lightning Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit (Agilent Technologies) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The mutagenesis primers, P15 (5′- AAGGGGATAATGATGCAAAAGAAGCATTTTTTA-3′) and P16 (5′-GGTTTTTTGTAAAAAATGCTTCTTTTGCAT CAT-3′), were used to replace two arginine residues at position 4 and 5 of BRO-2 with two lysines, yielding plasmid pTS.BroKK.Ec.

Science 1998;279:509–14 PubMedCrossRef 20 Joberty G, Peterson C

Science. 1998;279:509–14.PubMedCrossRef 20. Joberty G, Peterson C, Gao L, Macara IG. The cell polarity protein par6 links par3 and atypical protein kinase C to Cdc42. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:531–9.PubMedCrossRef 21. Saito S, Tatsumoto T, Lorenzi MV, Chedid M, Kapoor V, Sakata H, et al. Rho exchange factor ECT2 is induced by growth factors and regulates cytokinesis through the N-terminal cell cycle regulator-related domains. J Cell Biochem. 2003;90:819–36.PubMedCrossRef 22. Rojas R, Ruiz WG, Leung SM, Jou TS, Apodaca G. Cdc42-dependent

modulation of tight junctions and membrane protein traffic in polarized Madin–Darby canine kidney cells. www.selleckchem.com/products/torin-1.html Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:2257–74.PubMed 23. Hughson MD, Johnson K, Young RJ, Hoy WE, Bertram JF. Glomerular size and glomerulosclerosis: relationships to selleck chemicals disease categories, glomerular solidification, and ischemic obsolescence. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002;39:679–88.PubMedCrossRef”
“Introduction Recently, several large cohort studies investigating renal anemia therapy have highlighted the biologically

plausible, but erroneous assumption that the normalization of hemoglobin (Hb) iron should attenuate cardiovascular disease risks and lead to a decline in the mortality rate of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), both before and after the initiation of maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) treatment [1–4]. Erythropoiesis stimulating agent click here (ESA) treatment decisions and guidelines based on the questionable assumption that Hb should be normalized or nearly normalized in the majority of CKD patients need to be reconsidered [5]. The development of safe and effective strategies aimed at obtaining better patient survival remains a challenge. In recent years, high-dose intravenous (IV) iron supplementation Liothyronine Sodium has become the standard of care; however, there are concerns as to whether this is the right approach. Recent studies on the mechanisms involved in iron metabolism have revealed that hepcidin is a master regulator of systemic iron availability [6, 7]. To maintain iron homeostasis, hepcidin tightly controls duodenal

iron absorption and iron recycling from senescent erythrocytes by tissue macrophages. Hepcidin is the principal hormone responsible for the physiological regulation of iron balance as well as its control in a variety of pathologic conditions, including the anemia of chronic disease (ACD). In this review, we address the mechanisms whereby pharmacological iron supplementation, especially via the IV route, may reduce the body’s capacity to absorb iron from the gut and to reutilize iron from endogenous sources [8], with particular focus on the importance of hepcidin in this process. ESA hyporesponsiveness Although normal or near-normal Hb levels in CKD patients were associated with reduced mortality in many observational studies [9–11], recent evidence from randomized clinical trials does not support a beneficial effect of Hb normalization on survival.

J Bacteriol 1991, 173:5224–5229

J Bacteriol 1991, 173:5224–5229.PubMed 12. Strecker M, Sickinger E, English RS, Shively JM: Calvin cycle genes in Nitrobacter vulgaris T3. FEMS Microbiology Letters selleck products 1994, 120:45–50.CrossRef 13. Shively JM, van Keulen G, Meijer

WG: Something from almost nothing: carbon dioxide fixation in chemoautotrophs. Annu Rev Microbiol 1998, 52:191–230.PubMedCrossRef 14. Beller HR, Chain PS, Letain TE, Chakicherla A, Larimer FW, Richardson PM, Coleman MA, Wood AP, Kelly DP: The genome sequence of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic, facultatively anaerobic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans . J Bacteriol 2006, 188:1473–1488.PubMedCrossRef 15. Gibson JL, Tabita FR: Nucleotide sequence and functional analysis of cbbR, a positive regulator of the Calvin cycle operons of Rhodobacter sphaeroides . J Bacteriol 1993, 175:5778–5784.PubMed 16. Paoli GC, Soyer F, Shively J, Tabita FR: Rhodobacter capsulatus genes encoding form I ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase ( cbbLS ) and neighbouring genes were acquired by a horizontal gene transfer. Microbiology 1998,144(Pt 1):219–227.PubMedCrossRef 17. Falcone DL, Tabita FR: Complementation analysis and regulation of CO 2 fixation gene expression in a Volasertib cost ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase deletion strain of Rhodospirillum rubrum . J Bacteriol 1993, 175:5066–5077.PubMed

18. Toyoda K, Yoshizawa Y, Arai H, Ishii M, Igarashi Y: The role of two CbbRs in the transcriptional regulation of three ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase genes in Hydrogenovibrio

marinus strain MH-110. Microbiology 2005, 151:3615–3625.PubMedCrossRef 19. Wei X, Sayavedra-Soto LA, Arp DJ: The transcription of the cbb operon in Nitrosomonas europaea . Microbiology 2004, 150:1869–1879.PubMedCrossRef 20. Scott KM, Sievert SM, Abril FN, Ball LA, Barrett CJ, Blake RA, Boller AJ, Chain PS, Clark JA, Davis CR, Detter C, Do KF, Dobrinski KP, Faza BI, Fitzpatrick KA, Freyermuth Protein tyrosine phosphatase SK, Harmer TL, Hauser LJ, Hügler M, Kerfeld CA, Klotz MG, Kong WW, Land M, Lapidus A, Larimer FW, Longo DL, Lucas S, Malfatti SA, Massey SE, Martin DD, McCuddin Z, Meyer F, Moore JL, Ocampo LH Jr, Paul JH, Paulsen IT, Reep DK, Ren Q, Ross RL, Sato PY, Thomas P, Tinkham LE, Zeruth GT: The genome of deep-sea vent chemolithoautotroph Thiomicrospira crunogena XCL-2. PLoS Biol 2006, 4:383.CrossRef 21. Quatrini R, Lefimil C, click here Veloso FA, Pedroso I, Holmes DS, Jedlicki E: Bioinformatic prediction and experimental verification of Fur-regulated genes in the extreme acidophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans . Nucleic Acids Res 2007, 35:2153–2166.PubMedCrossRef 22. Maniatis T: Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual/T. Maniatis, E.F. Fritsch, J. Sambrook. Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory; 1982. 23.

STZ carried out the MTT assay, flow cytometric analysis and revis

STZ carried out the MTT assay, flow cytometric analysis and revised the manuscript. XYL prepared the camptothecine nanoparticles and drafted the method of the preparation. XCC contributed to histological analysis and revised the manuscript. XZ participated in the design of the

study, supervised experimental work and revised the manuscript. ZYQ offered camptothecine and nanoparticle, and participated in the preparation of the camptothecine nanoparticles. LNZ participated in animal experiment, histological analysis and TUNEL staining. ZYL contributed to animal experiment and TUNEL staining. YMW participated in statistical analyses. QZ, TY, ZYL and XH contributed to animal experiment. YQW conceived of the study and designed the topic. All authors read and approved AZD1480 research buy the final manuscript.”
“Background An adequate staging of a tumour arising in the oral-cavity is essential for the choice of appropriate surgical management (i.e. ablative, reconstructive) and for the chemo-radiation therapy planning [1, 2]. The evaluation of either the depth or

the extension of the invasion of both the soft tissue and the bone adjacent to the lesion is necessary to well stage the oral-cavity tumours. This is particularly emphasized when a mandibular involvement is presumable, considering the probable tumour invasion of both its cortical Momelotinib price and medullary components. Clinical assessment of mandibular invasion is possible by either evaluating clinical symptoms and

signs or bimanually assessing the mobility of the tumour in relation to the mandible [3]. However, the clinical examination always requires an imaging correlation. Various imaging techniques (i.e. ortopanthomography, scintigraphy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography) are actually used to make a learn more diagnosis of mandibular invasion by tumours of the oral cavity [4–6]. Multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) represent the routine Tobramycin imaging modalities for the pre-operative tumour staging of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). These techniques provide multiple informations regarding (i) the extension of the tumour beyond the midline lingual septum, (ii) the deep extension and/or (iii) the infiltration of the mandible, considering either the cortical or medullary portion [7–9], all of them considered very important points for treatment planning [10–12]. However, in some cases also with imaging it could be difficult to determine exactly the presence and rate of bone infiltration, and particularly to establish the involvement of the cortical and/or medullary part of the mandible [3, 12–14]. To our knowledge very few studies compared MDCT and MRI in the evaluation of the mandibular involvement from tumours arising into the oral cavity.

HCWs considered to be at high risk are evaluated annually All ot

HCWs considered to be at high risk are evaluated annually. All others are evaluated every second year or after known exposure to patients with active TB. TST and IGRA have been performed simultaneously. TST was performed when the diameter of a previous TST was below 15 mm or when no previous TST result was known. A chest X-ray was performed when TST was ≥10 mm or IGRA was positive or in HCWs with TB symptoms. BCG vaccination was assessed through the individual vaccination register or by scars. Following the national vaccination plan, BCG vaccination for newborns is mandatory in Portugal and until January 2000 was repeated if TST was <5 mm

(National Vaccination Plan 2009). Therefore, every HCW has been vaccinated at least once. TST was performed by trained personnel following standard procedures. In brief, 0.1 mL (2 TU)

of purified BAY 11-7082 protein derivate (RT23; Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark) was injected OTX015 purchase intradermally at the volar side of the forearm, and the transverse diameter of the induration was read 72–96 h later. A diameter ≥10 mm was considered positive. A conversion in TST was defined as a TST ≥10 mm and an increase of ≥10 mm or less stringent ≥6 mm compared to a previous TST <10 mm (Menzies 1999, ATS 2000). Blood for the IGRA was drawn during the same appointment during which the TST and an interview were conducted. As IGRA, the QuantiFERON-TB® Gold In-Tube (QFT) assay (Cellestis Limited, Carnegie, Australia) was administrated following the manufacturer’s Farnesyltransferase protocol. Concentrations above 10 IU/mL were set to 10 IU/mL because of imprecision of Vorinostat datasheet measurement at these high concentrations (Pai et al. 2009). According to the manufacturers, an INF-γ concentration ≥0.35 IU/mL after subtracting the NIL control is defined as a positive test result. Four

different definitions for conversion and reversion were applied: (1) transgression or regression over cutoff, (2) increase from <0.2 to >0.7 IU/mL or decrease from >0.7 to <0.2 IU/mL, (3) transgression or regression over cutoff plus change ≥0.35 IU/mL, and (4) transgression or regression over cutoff plus change ≥0.50 IU/mL. Observers were blinded to the results of the TST and vice versa. Statistical analysis For metric variables, box plots were drawn giving the median as black line in the box and the 25 and 75 percentiles as the boundaries of the box. Chi-square tests were used for categorical data. Baseline INF-γ concentration was categorized in small increments in order to observe at which increment the highest change in conversion and reversion rates occurs. The 95% confidence intervals (CI) for proportions were calculated. If the 95% CI did not overlap, differences between proportions were considered as statistically significant. The participants gave informed consent to the participation in the study.


Naphthalene PD98059 and phenanthrene were added at a final concentration of 5 mmol l-1, either dissolved in N,N-dimethylformamide (ACS grade, Anachemia)

and added to cultures used for RNA extraction or added as a suspension of crystals to cultures used for fatty acid extraction. Phenanthrene efflux assay Efflux of [9-14C]phenanthrene (96.5% radiochemical purity; Amersham) was determined using a rapid centrifugation method [17] conducted at room temperature (~22°C). The final concentration of radiolabeled plus unlabeled phenanthrene in the assay medium was 6.4 μM, which corresponds to 90% of its aqueous solubility limit at that temperature and ensures that insoluble phenanthrene does not confound measurement of cell-associated radiolabel. P. fluorescens cLP6a and cLP6a-1 cells were harvested by centrifugation, washed once with potassium phosphate buffer [pH 7] and re-suspended in the same buffer at room temperature at an OD600 of 1.0. Cell suspensions see more were used immediately in the rapid assay to prevent long-term FA composition changes, and phenanthrene efflux was measured over a period of only 25 min. At time zero radiolabeled phenanthrene was added to the cell suspension and thereafter samples were withdrawn at timed intervals, collecting the cells by using a microfuge. The concentration of phenanthrene in the cell pellet (μmol/g) was calculated from the amount of 14C in the pellet fraction, the initial phenanthrene concentration and the

cell dry weight as previously described by Bugg et al. [17]. Selleck AZD6738 Sodium azide (Fisher Scientific) was added 9 min into the assay to a final concentration of 120 mM as an inhibitor of active transport [17]. All efflux assays were performed using independent triplicate cultures. Steady state concentrations pre- and post-azide addition were calculated and statistically cAMP evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) in Excel. Antibiotic

sensitivity assays The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the lowest concentration of antibiotic that inhibits growth, was measured as turbidity (OD600) using a Powerwave XS spectrophotometer (BioTek). The MICs of tetracycline, streptomycin, nalidixic acid, erythromycin and chloramphenicol were determined using the microtiter broth dilution method [20] for P. fluorescens cLP6a and cLP6a-1 grown at 10°C, 28°C or 35°C. RNA extraction P. fluorescens cLP6a cells were grown in TSB to logarithmic, stationary or death phase at 28°C; to stationary phase at 10°C, 28°C or 35°C; or to stationary phase in the presence of antibiotics (chloramphenicol or tetracycline at ¼ MIC) or PAHs (naphthalene or phenanthrene at 5 mmol l-1). At point of harvest, 10 ml of culture was stopped by adding 1.25 ml of ice-cold ethanol/phenol solution (5% water-saturated phenol, in ethanol). Total RNA was immediately extracted from the harvested cultures using MasterPure™ RNA Purification Kit (Epicentre Biotechnologies) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

Next, the nanobelts were transformed on another silicon chip, and

Next, the nanobelts were transformed on another silicon chip, and Au markers NVP-BSK805 had been produced on the silicon chip in advance through photolithography. The prepared samples were mounted into the vacuum chamber of the ion implanter and implanted by N+ ions with

30 keV. The choice implantation fluences include 5 × 1015, 1 × 1016, and 5 × 1016 ions/cm2. The photoluminescence spectra of every marked CdS nanobelts were detected by the micro-Raman system (LabRAM HR800, HORIBA Ltd., Minami-Ku, Kyoto, Japan) both before and after ion implantation. Surface morphology images of CdS nanobelts were acquired through SEM (FEI Sirion FEG, FEI Company, Hillsboro, OR, USA). Figure 13a,b shows schematic diagrams of the transfer process and implantation process, respectively. Figure 13c,d,e displays the SEM and optical image of the CdS nanobelts. Figure 13 Schematic diagram and optical and SEM images of processes. The schematic diagram of (a) the transform process and (b) implantation process. (c, d) The optical and (e)

SEM image of the nanobelts grown by thermal evaporation process. Figure 14 shows the PL emission spectrum of single CdS nanobelts at room temperature. All the curves in Figure 14a signify the PL emission spectrum of the same nanobelt; Figure 14b,c represents two other nanobelts. In the case of the dose of 5 × 1015 ions/cm2, the PL emission spectrum of the unimplanted nanobelt has three emission peaks at about 505, 617, and 770 nm. The peak at

505 nm originates from the near-band-edge emission of CdS, and the broad emission band at 617 nm is associated with the low density of LY333531 sulfur vacancies in the CdS nanobelt [65]. The peak at www.selleckchem.com/products/SB-202190.html 770 nm is related to the transitions between the surface states and the valence band of CdS [66, 67]. After ion implantation, the near-band-edge emission peak was red-shifted, and the defect emission Morin Hydrate peak was quenched. Later, all the samples were annealed in an argon atmosphere at 350°C for 40 min. The crystalline quality of the CdS nanobelts recovered obviously after annealing in argon atmosphere. In the red emission region, the annealed nanobelts have an emission peak at 750 nm. This may be attributed to the surface defect similar to that of unimplanted nanobelts and/or the high density of sulfur vacancies caused by ion implantation [65, 68]. Unimplanted nanobelts have a defect emission peak at 617 nm caused by a small number of sulfur vacancies generated during growth process. After ion implantation and the annealing process, the concentration of sulfur vacancies increased observably; although the annealing process could recover the crystal lattice and reduce sulfur vacancies, a mass of sulfur vacancies still remained in the lattice after annealing. The emission peak at 526 nm may be attribute to the N+ ions implanted into the crystal lattice and substituted S as a shallow acceptor; this process resulted in the red shift of the band-edge emission peak.

Our results also indicate that GLUT1 expression in non-intestinal

Our results also indicate that GLUT1 expression in non-intestinal cancers was lower than in intestinal cancers. However, the reason why such aggressive cancers showed low GLUT1 expression is unknown. A previous study found that glutamine metabolism is upregulated in gastric cancer [32]. Gastric cancer cells use glutamine as an energy

source in a hypoxic tumor microenvironment, which may eliminate the necessity for glucose transport. This metabolic alteration accompanied with malignant transformation has been reported in other cancers [33]. Interestingly, a glutamine-based PET is being developed; if this website successful, this contradiction could be disproved in the future. On the other hand, HIF1α expression correlated with SUV in both

types, although a more significant correlation was seen in non-intestinal specimens. The non-intestinal tumors may have been influenced Pifithrin-�� nmr more by hypoxia derived from tumor fibrosis due to a scattering tumor growth pattern than hypoxia due to Oligomycin A increased tumor size. Further research will be needed to determine the exact reason. Limitations of this study There are several limitations in our study. First, we examined 50 cases of gastric cancer patients. The fewness of cases affects the statistical analysis and makes it difficult to get firm results in association of FDG uptake and the expression of the proteins. Second, we could not exclude the possibility of contribution of physiological FDG uptake in normal stomach on cancerous lesion. Finally, our results did not show the direct physiological relationship between HIF1α as a marker of hypoxic condition and FDG accumulation. Conclusions The usefulness of FDG-PET in the detection of malignant tumors or prediction of prognoses has been widely reported. However, our results indicate that the degree of FDG accumulation does not always suggest a prognosis in gastric cancer. This study is the first to show the

correlation by evaluating FDG uptake for in a quantitative manner. Upregulation of glucose transport due to increased GLUT1 expression was not an explanation for the different FDG uptakes observed, although tumor hypoxia and HIF1α expression may provide a reasonable mechanism. Further investigation is needed to confirm these results, but metabolic alternation through HIF1α induction in tumor hypoxia could increase FDG uptake in gastric cancer. Acknowledgements We are extremely grateful to all the clinical staff who cared for these patients. We also are thankful to Dr. Shoji Kimura for his reliable experimental suggestion. References 1. Shimada H, Okazumi S, Koyama M, Murakami K: Japanese gastric cancer association task force for research promotion: clinical utility of 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography in gastric cancer. A systematic review of the literature. Gastric Cancer 2011, 14:13–21.PubMedCrossRef 2. Murakami K: FDG-PET for Hepatobiliary and pancreatic cancer: advances and current limitations.

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing Susceptibility to a standard

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing Susceptibility to a standard panel of antimicrobial agents http://​www.​danmap.​org was determined by microbroth dilution and interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines [32], except for ciprofloxacin (≥0.125 μg/mL was used as breakpoint). Phage typing Phage typing was performed by the National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark according to the phage typing scheme developed by Callow [33] and extended by Anderson et al. [34]. Strains that react with phages, but have a profile not included in the phage learn more typing scheme, are denoted Reaction Does Not Conform (RDNC). DNA microarray The DNA microarray used

in this study was previously find more described [35]. A set of 281 gene-specific

57-60 mer oligonucleotide probes were designed using the program Array Designer 4.1 (Premier Biosoft, Palo Alto, CA, USA). The oligonucleotides were spotted on glass slides using a QArray Mini Arrayer (Genetix, New Milton, UK). Hybridized spots were visualized in a GenePix Selleck CB-839 4000B laser scanner (Axon, Foster City, CA). Each oligonucleotide allows the detection of the presence or absence of a characteristic sequence previously described in Salmonella. The microarray used gives no information on the location of a gene or target sequence and can only score its presence or absence. Uncertain array results were resolved by PCR using primers described previously [35]. Data analysis Analysis of the DNA microarray data was performed as previously described [35]. A comparison was made by importing array values, gene present or absent, into BioNumerics 5.1 (Applied Maths, Sint-Martens-Latem, Belgium) as character data. An Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram (Fig. 2) was calculated by simple matching of binary coefficients on the basis of a geneset consisting of all genes from the array except the serotyping markers and the resistance markers. Multiple-locus

variable-number of tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) MLVA was performed as described previously [36] to ensure that the strains were likely to be epidemiologically unrelated. The MLVA repeats were calculated over and named according to the method described recently [37]. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) PFGE was carried out with XbaI restriction enzyme according to the Pulse-Net protocol [38], gels were analyzed in BioNumerics 5.1, and profiles were assigned by comparison to a database with known Danish profiles (see additional file 1: Xba I PFGE profiles of all isolates). Sequence typing Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was carried out as previously described [39] and the alleles and the sequence types were assigned according to the MLST scheme on http://​mlst.​ucc.​ie/​mlst/​mlst/​dbs/​Senterica/​. Acknowledgements EL was partly funded by the Danish Research Council. We are grateful to the patients without whose kind participation this study would not have been possible.