Here, we investigated both past and recent island differentiation

Here, we investigated both past and recent island differentiation and micro-evolutionary changes in the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita) based on combined information from one mitochondrial (Cytochrome c Oxydase subunit I, COI) and 13 microsatellite markers and four morphological characters. This Caribbean endemic and abundant species has a large distribution, and two subspecies are supposed to occur: Z. a. zenaida in the Greater Antilles (GA) and Z. a. aurita in the Lesser

Antilles (LA). Doves were sampled on two GA islands (Puerto Rico and the British Virgin Islands) and six LA islands (Saint Barthelemy, Guadeloupe, Les Saintes, Martinique, Saint Lucia and Barbados). Eleven COI haplotypes were observed that could be assembled in two distinct lineages, with six specific to GA, four to LA, the remaining one occurring in all islands. However, BI 2536 the level of divergence between those two lineages was too moderate to fully corroborate the Selleckchem DAPT existence of two subspecies. Colonisation of the studied islands appeared to be a recent process. However, both

phenotypic and microsatellite data suggest that differentiation is already under way between all of them, partly associated with the existence of limited gene flow. No isolation by distance was observed. Differentiation for morphological traits was more pronounced than for neutral markers. These results suggest that despite recent colonisation, genetic drift and/or restricted gene flow are promoting differentiation for neutral markers. Variation in selective pressures between islands may explain the observed phenotypic differentiation.”
“Background Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is defined as a symptom complex comprising urgency, with or without urge incontinence, and usually frequency and nocturia. The association between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and bladder symptoms has been reported. This study is designed to investigate whether functional dyspepsia (FD), like IBS, is associated with OAB. Methods A web surveys containing questions about

OAB, FD, IBS, and demographics were completed by 5494 public individuals (2302 men and 3192 women) who have no history of severe illness. The prevalence and overlap of OAB, FD, Selleckchem JQ1 and IBS were examined. Key Results Among participants with FD, 20.5% could also be diagnosed with OAB (odds ratio [OR]: 2.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.213.67). Although concomitant FD and IBS were more strongly associated with OAB (OR: 4.34; 95% CI: 2.816.73), OAB was also highly prevalent among participants with FD but without IBS (OR: 3.09; 95% CI: 2.294.18). Among participants with FD, an overlapping OAB condition was more prevalent in those with both postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) and epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) (OR: 3.75; 95% CI: 2.485.67) than in those with PDS or EPS alone. Among participants with OAB, the severity of bladder symptoms was greater in participants with dyspeptic symptoms than without them.

Regional CBF and the degree of parahippocampal gyms atrophy were

Regional CBF and the degree of parahippocampal gyms atrophy were studied in 22 chronic alcoholic male patients with no neurological or psychological symptom (mean age, 59.3 +/- 4.1 years). Their findings selleck products were compared with those of 22 age-matched, male, normal controls (mean age, 59.7 +/- 3.9 years). Single-photon emission computed tomography was performed using the (99m)Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer ((99m)Tc-ECD) Patlak Plot method, and the three-dimensional stereotaxic region of interest (ROI) template (3DSRT) and the fine stereotaxic ROI template (fine SRT) developed by Takeuchi et al were used to evaluate regional CBF, focusing primarily on the limbic system. These methods

make it possible to precisely and objectively measure the details of regional CBF. The voxel-based specific regional analysis system for Alzheimer’s disease (VSRAD) was used to determine the degree of parahippocampal gyrus atrophy in chronic alcoholic patients. VSRAD is a method developed by Hirata et al for evaluating the degree of atrophy of the parahippocampal gyrus. The results were analyzed using Z scores (>2 indicating significant atrophy). Blood flows in the callosomarginal region, pericallosal region, thalamus, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdaloid body, anterior cingulate this website gyrus, and middle cingulate gyrus were lower in the chronic

alcoholic group than in the control group. Parahippocampal gyms atrophy was not observed in the control group (average Z score, 0.62 +/- 0.29). In contrast, an atrophic tendency was observed in the chronic alcoholic group (average Z score, 1.88 +/- 0.44). Clinically intact, chronic alcoholic patients with no neurological or psychological symptom had decreased CBF in the limbic system and a tendency to

parahippocampal gyros atrophy. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Poor weight gain is common in infants after Stage I Norwood LY2835219 in vitro operation and can negatively impact outcomes. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of feeding strategy on interstage weight gain. Methods: In a multi-centre study, 158 infants discharged following the Norwood operation were enrolled prospectively. Weight and feeding data were obtained at 2-week intervals. Differences between feeding regimens in average daily weight gain and change in weight-for-age z-score between Stage I discharge and Stage II surgery were examined. Results: Discharge feeding regimens were oral only in 52%, oral with tube supplementation in 33%, and by nasogastric/gastrostomy tube only in 15%. There were significant differences in the average daily interstage weight gain among the feeding groups – oral only 25.0 grams per day, oral/tube 21.4 grams per day, and tube only 22.3 grams per day – p=0.019. Tube-only-fed infants were significantly older at Stage II (p=0.004) and had a significantly greater change in weight-for-age z-score (p=0.007).

The MNE package is a collaborative effort of multiple institutes

The MNE package is a collaborative effort of multiple institutes striving to implement and

share best methods and to facilitate distribution of analysis pipelines to advance reproducibility of research. Full documentation is available p38 MAPK activity at (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Diabetes poses a serious threat to low-income countries such as Bangladesh. It is one of the leading causes of premature morbidity and mortality, and requires life-long healthcare services. Women with diabetes are affected in all stages of their lives, Uniquely, diabetes affects the health of mothers and their unborn children. Poverty, ignorance, and gender discrimination adversely affect women with diabetes. However the Diabetic, Association of Bangladesh has played an increasingly

effective role in providing comprehensive socio-medicate and life-long check details follow-up of diabetic women, free of charge. This is reflected by the increasing attendance of women with diabetes, especially from rural areas. (C) 2008 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Fungi belong to common allergens, which can be found both in occupational and nonoccupational environment. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and factors associated with mould allergy among bakers and farmers reporting work-related respiratory symptoms. The study group comprised 117 bakers and 83 farmers reporting work-related respiratory symptoms. Skin prick tests (SPT) with common, fungal and occupational allergens, estimation of serum total IgE level, spirometry, histamine test and specific inhalative challenge test with occupational allergens were performed in all subjects. The prevalence of hypersensitivity to fungal species was higher

among farmers (32.5%) than bakers (16.2%). Positive SPT with mould allergens were found among 10.8% farmers and 6.8% bakers with occupational allergy. The fungi allergens giving positive SPT results most frequently were Candida albicans, Levures melanges, Aspergillus mix. and Charbons cerealiers in both groups. Dibutyryl-cAMP supplier Among mould allergens, hypersensitivity to Aspergillus genus was the most common in farmers and bakers group, while among Saccharomyces – Candida albicans sensitization was the most frequently detected. Mould hypersensitivity is related to occupational respiratory allergy, especially to asthma and rhinitis in farmers, and occupational asthma in bakers. Although sensitization to Saccharomyces was more frequent, similar correlation was not observed.”
“Mobilisation of the spine is a common technique used in clinical practice. Studies have shown that mobilisation to the spine can decrease pain. The optimum treatment dose for achieving this has not so far been investigated.

3% to 4 0% Conclusions-This study indicates that the symptoms

3% to 4.0%.\n\nConclusions-This study indicates that the symptoms/signs considered typical of PCI occur far less often than was expected. Inaccurate localization would occur commonly if clinicians relied on the clinical neurological deficits alone to differentiate PCI from ACI. Neuroimaging is vital to ensure accurate localization of cerebral infarction. (Stroke. 2012;43:2060-2065.)”
“We sketch the proof of the equivalence between the hat versions

of Heegaard Floer homology and embedded contact homology (ECH). The key point is to express these two Floer homology theories in terms of an open book decomposition of the ambient manifold.”
“Four new C-14-polyacetylene glycosides, namely coreosides A-D (1-4), were isolated from the capitula of Coreopsis tinctoria, a Snow chrysanthemum or Snow tea that is used as a folk tea for prevention of cardiovascular disease Galardin in southern Xinjiang, China. Coreosides A-D feature a long chain click here structure as its aglycon with two acetylenes on C-8 and C-10 and two olefinics on C-6 and C-12 sites, which construct

a large conjugate system. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences and hydrolysis. Compounds 1-4 exhibited significant inhibition against cyclooxygenase-2 at the concentration of 1 x 10(-6) mol/L, with its IC50 values of 0.22-8.8 x 10(-2) mu mol/L. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The multi-degrees of AZD6094 molecular weight freedom surface permanent-magnet motor (Multi-D.O.F. SPM) has several degrees of freedom

operations that are defined as the “roll”, “yaw”, and “pitch”. Normally, the torque that is generated to rotate a rotor includes ripples. The analysis of the torque ripples is important for improving motor performance. In terms of the electric analysis, torque ripple occurs as a result of many factors, including the rotor and stator structures, the distribution of the air-gap flux density, and the waveform of the current in the coils. In particular, the torque ripple is an important factor in the stable operation of the Multi-D.O.F. SPM. Therefore, in this work, the torque ripple was analyzed using various types of magnetization for the permanent magnet. An improved model was proposed for the Multi-D.O.F. SPM based on this analysis.”
“The identification of neural stem cells (NSCs) and their contribution to continuous neurogenesis has shown that the hippocampus and olfactory bulb are plastic. Brain plasticity, achieved at the level of cell genesis, has an essential role in the maintenance of brain homeostasis. Via combinatorial functions of extrinsic signals and intrinsic programs, adult neurogenesis is tightly regulated in a specialized microenvironment, a niche. Misregulated neurogenesis is detrimental to normal brain functions and, in extreme cases, pathogenic.

This new variant, identified in rat optic nerve, was also express

This new variant, identified in rat optic nerve, was also expressed in other tissues. P2X1b receptors lack amino acids 182 to 208 of native P2X1, a region that includes residues that are highly conserved among Compound Library distinct P2X receptors.

When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, P2X1b was not functional as a homomer; however, when co-expressed with P2X1, it downregulated the electrical response generated by ATP compared with that of oocytes expressing P2X1 alone, and it seemed to form heteromeric channels with a modestly enhanced ATP potency. A decrease in responses to ATP in oocytes co-expressing different ratios of P2X1b to P2X1 was completely eliminated by overnight pretreatment with apyrase. Thus, it is suggested that P2X1b regulates, through a use-dependent mechanism, the availability, in the plasma membrane, of receptor channels that can

be operated by ATP.”
“Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) remains a serious threat for immunocompromised individuals, including transplant recipients and newborns. To date, all drugs licensed for the treatment of HCMV infection and disease target the viral DNA polymerase. Although these drugs are effective, several drawbacks are associated with their use, including toxicity and emergence of drug resistance. Hence, new and improved antivirals with novel molecular targets are urgently needed. Here we report on the antiviral properties of AIC246, a representative of a novel class of low-molecular-weight compounds 17DMAG Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor that is currently undergoing clinical phase II studies. The anti-HCMV activity of AIC246 was evaluated in vitro and in vivo using various cell culture assays and an engineered mouse xenograft model. In addition, antiviral properties of the drug were characterized in comparison to the current gold standard ganciclovir. We demonstrate this website that AIC246 exhibits excellent in vitro inhibitory activity against HCMV laboratory strains and clinical isolates, retains activity against ganciclovir-resistant viruses, is well tolerated in different

cell types (median selectivity index, 18,000), and exerts a potent in vivo efficacy in a mouse xenograft model. Moreover, we show that the antiviral block induced by AIC246 is reversible and the efficacy of the drug is not significantly affected by cell culture variations such as cell type or multiplicity of infection. Finally, initial mode-of-action analyses reveal that AIC246 targets a process in the viral replication cycle that occurs later than DNA synthesis. Thus, AIC246 acts via a mode of action that differs from that of polymerase inhibitors like ganciclovir.”
“The impact of Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) in healthcare settings throughout the developed world is considerable in terms of mortality, morbidity, and disease management.

RRD-251 prevented S-phase entry, induced senescence and apoptosis

RRD-251 prevented S-phase entry, induced senescence and apoptosis, and inhibited anchorage-independent growth and invasion (P < 0.01). Drug efficacy on subcutaneous and orthotopic xenograft models was tested by intraperitoneal injections of RRD-251 (50 mg/kg) alone or in combination with gemcitabine (250 mg/kg). RRD-251 significantly reduced tumor growth in vivo accompanied by reduced Rb phosphorylation and lymph node and liver metastasis (P < 0.01). Combination of RRD-251 AR-13324 molecular weight with gemcitabine showed cooperative effect on tumor growth (P < 0.01). In conclusion, disruption of the Rb-Raf-1 interaction significantly reduces the malignant properties of pancreatic cancer cells irrespective

of their gemcitabine sensitivity. Selective targeting selleck chemicals llc of Rb-Raf-1 interaction might be a promising strategy targeting pancreatic cancer. (C)2013 AACR.”

There is a need to monitor everolimus blood concentrations in renal transplant recipients as a result of its high pharmacokinetic variability and narrow therapeutic window. However, analytical methods to determine blood concentrations often differ in performance. Therefore, we investigated whether two commonly used therapeutic drug monitoring methods for everolimus were in agreement and to what extent their differences could lead to differences in dosage advice.\n\nDesign and Methods: Six hundred twelve whole blood samples were obtained from 28 adult renal transplant recipients receiving everolimus and prednisolone therapy.

These samples included 286 everolimus trough concentrations. The remaining samples were obtained up to 6 hours post everolimus intake and allowed calculation of 84 AUCs(0-12h). All samples were analyzed with fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) on an Abbott TDxFLx analyzer and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).\n\nResults: Everolimus blood concentrations measured with FPIA and LC-MS/MS were not in agreement. Concentrations determined by FPIA were, on average, 23% higher than concentrations quantified by LC-MS/MS. Moreover, concentrations lower than 15 mu g/L or AUC(0-12h) determined with FPIA could be twofold higher than with LC-MS/MS. This variability can lead to clinically relevant differences in dose adjustment of up to 1.25 mg everolimus despite using a correction factor of 23%. Finally, when trough concentrations were measured with FPIA, higher intrapatient variability was observed compared with the use of LC-MS/MS.\n\nConclusion: LC-MS/MS outperforms FPIA for clinical drug monitoring and intervention of everolimus therapy in adult renal transplant recipients on dual therapy with prednisolone. Specifically, the use of FPIA can lead to clinically relevant differences in everolimus dosage advice and higher intrapatient variability.

Although both compounds achieved dose-dependent inhibition of 5-L

Although both compounds achieved dose-dependent inhibition of 5-LOX enzyme activity, CJ-13,6 10 was 3-4 fold more potent than zileuton in all-assays. Evaluation of 5-LOX metabolites-by LC/MS/MS and ELISA

confirmed that both compounds selectively inhibited all products downstream of 5-hydroperoxy eicosatetraenoic acid (5-HPETE), including 5oxo-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxoETE), without inhibition of 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX), 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX), or cyclooxygenase (COX) products. In the rat air pouch model, oral dosing of CJ-13,610 and zileuton resulted in selective inhibition check details 5-LOX activity from pouch exudate and ex vivo rat whole blood with similar potency to in vitro assay. These data show that the

rat air pouch model is a reliable and useful tool for evaluating in vivo efficacy of 5-LOX inhibitors and may aid in the development of the next generation of 5-LOX inhibitors, such as the non-redox inhibitors similar to CJ-13,610. (c) 2008 Elsevier CFTRinh-172 mw B.V. All rights reserved.”
“One approach to investigate psychophysiological processes occurring in the Concealed Information Test (CIT) is to use a parallel task, which engages specific mental activity in addition to the CIT. In the present study, the influence of an interfering n-back task on the physiological responses in a Concealed Information Test (CIT) was investigated. Forty participants underwent a mock-crime experiment with a modified CIT. In a within-subject design, the CIT was applied in blocks with and without an additional n-back task. Electrodermal activity (EDA), respiration line length (RLL), heart rate (HR), and finger pulse waveform length (FPWL) were registered. Reaction times in the n-back task and the CIT were recorded.

The parallel task enhanced the differential IPI-145 price EDA response to probe vs. irrelevant items, while it diminished the response differences for RLL and phasic HR. Results shed light upon working-memory-related processes in the CIT. The diverging effects of the interfering mental activity on electrodermal and cardiopulmonary measures, if replicable, might contribute to a better understanding of the psychophysiological responsiveness underlying the CIT. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“A comparative study on the stability and potential of alginate and pectin based beads for production of poultry probiotic cells using MRS medium in repeated batch fermentation was conducted. The bead cores, made of three types of materials, i.e., ca-alginate, ca-pectinate and ca-alginate/pectinate, were compared. The effect of single and double layer coatings using chitosan and core material, respectively, on the bead stability and cell production were also studied. The pectin based beads were found to be more stable than that of the alginate beads and their stability was further improved by coating with chitosan.

Results: Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed the etiology of the

\n\nResults: Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed the etiology of the scrotal edema 100% of the time, with no complications, and allowed concomitant repair of the hernia. One patient had postoperative catheter selleck chemicals outflow obstruction, which was deemed to be unrelated to the hernia repair.\n\nConclusion: Diagnostic laparoscopy is helpful in confirming the source of acute scrotal edema in CAPD patients and can be performed in conjunction with an open-mesh repair with minimal added time or risk.”
“Farmers have been slow to adopt decision support system

(DSS) models and their outputs, mainly owing to (i) the complexity of the data involved, which most potential users are unable to collect and process,. and (ii) inability to integrate these models into real representations of their informational environments. This situation raises questions SB203580 about the way farm management researchers have modelled information and information management, and especially about the quality of the information assessed by the farmers. We consider that to review advisory procedures we need to understand

how farmers select and use farm management-related information, rather than focusing on decisions made in particular situations. The aim of this study was to build a conceptual model of the farmer-targeted farm management-related information system. This model was developed using data collected in commercial beef cattle farms. The design structure and operational procedures are based on (i) data categories representing the diversity of the informational activity; and (ii) selected criteria for supporting decisions. The model is composed of two subsystems, each composed of two units. First, an organizational subsystem organizes, finalizes and monitors informational

activity Second, a processing subsystem builds and exploits the informational resources. This conceptual model makes it possible to describe and understand the diverse range of farmers’ informational activity by taking into account both the flow of information and the way farmers make sense of that information. This model could serve as a component of biodecisional Selleckchem Liproxstatin 1 DSS models for assigning information in the decision-making process. The next task will be to take into account the broad range of farmers’ perceptions of the management situations in DSS models.”
“Theoretical analyses have reported that in most circumstances where natural selection favours reliance on social learning, conformity (positive frequency-dependent social learning) is also favoured. These findings suggest that much animal social learning should involve a copythe-majority strategy, yet there is currently surprisingly little evidence for conformist learning among animals.

Using a set of variables selected to characterize the dimensi

\n\nUsing a set of variables selected to characterize the dimensions of intrinsic motivation, three alternative composite scores were calculated

based on a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and a two-parameter logistic model (2-PLM). Weighted kappa coefficients were used to evaluate variation in GPs ranks according to each method.\n\nThe three methods produced similar results on both the estimation of the indicators weights and the order of GP rank lists. All weighted kappa coefficients were 0.80. The CFA and 2-PLM produced the most similar results.\n\nThere was little difference regarding the three methods results, validating our measure of GPs intrinsic motivation. The 2-PLM appeared selleck kinase inhibitor theoretically and

empirically more robust for establishing the intrinsic motivation score.”
“Background: The effects of acute anemia on neuronal Transferase inhibitor cells and the safe limits of hematocrit are not well established. The objective of this study was to evaluate neuronal pro-and anti-apoptotic Bax and Bcl-x proteins, caspase-3 and -9 activity, and DNA fragmentation after acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH). Methods: Twenty-four pigs were anesthetized and randomized into 4 groups: Sham, ANH to 15% hematocrit (ANH15%), ANH to 10% hematocrit (ANH10%) and hypoxia (Hx). ANH was achieved by simultaneous blood withdrawal and hydroxyethyl starch infusion. Hx consisted of ventilation with a 6% inspired oxygen fraction for 60 minutes. Bax and Bcl-x

proteins as well as DNA fragmentation were evaluated in cortical nuclear and mitochondrial fractions. Caspase-3 and -9 activity was evaluated in the cortical mitochondrial and hippocampal cytosolic fractions. The data were compared using analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s test (P smaller than 0.05). Results: No changes were observed in Bax protein expression after hemodilution in the ANH15% and ANH10% groups compared to the Sham group. Bax expression in the Hx group was increased in the nuclear and mitochondrial fractions compared to all other groups. SU5402 nmr No significant difference was observed in Bcl-x expression. Caspase-3 and -9 activity in the cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions was different in the Hx group compared to all other groups. No statistical significance in DNA fragmentation was found among the Sham, ANH15% or ANH10% groups. Conclusion: ANH to 10 and 15% hematocrit did not induce alterations in apoptosis precursors, suggesting that cerebral oxygenation was preserved during these anemic states.”
“Human kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is emerging as an important drug target enzyme in a number of inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease states. Recombinant protein production of KMO, and therefore discovery of KMO ligands, is challenging due to a large membrane targeting domain at the C-terminus of the enzyme that causes stability, solubility, and purification difficulties.

Both tensile and compressive strains in the Si micropillars were

Both tensile and compressive strains in the Si micropillars were observed. Exceptionally large stresses were found to exist in some of the measured Si micropillars. The cross-sectional shapes of these structures were shown to be an important factor in correlating their strain

concentrations which could fracture Repotrectinib mouse the micropillar. (C) 2013 American Vacuum Society.”
“Scedosporium apiospermum (S. apiospermum) otitis led to an osteolysis of the petrous bone in a 72-year-old non-insulinodependant diabetic patient. He was suffering from otorrhoea for more than six months. A malignant otitis externa was diagnosed despite the lack of pain and the rapid evolution of the lesions. S. apiospermum (Pseudallescheria boydii), a telluric fungus, was isolated from the external auditory canal. Since this fungus is known to be a saprophyte, ceftazidim and ciprofloxacin as a probabilistic antibiotherapy was initiated. The treatment was changed for oral voriconazole (minimal inhibitory concentration: 0.002 mu g/ml) white the same fungus was isolated Fedratinib twice. Osteolytic otitis externa caused by S. apiospermum diagnosis was confirmed by the repetitive isolation of the fungus in culture and pathological

features. Otitis caused by Scedosporium is rare and therapeutic consensus is lacking. Similar osteolysis located at other localizations have mainly been treated by voriconazole and surgical debridation. In spite of its very low frequency, this aetiology of otitis is worrying, because diagnostic delay, hence therapeutic delay, might lead to complications. When fungus from environment is isolated, mycological data from cultures should be analysed in agreement with tissue samples microscopic examination in order to use efficient antifungal therapy. Attention should be

focused on few telluric Etomoxir fungus (eg S. apiospermum) needing a repetitive sampling. (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Truncated-ERBB2 isoforms (t-ERBB2s), resulting from receptor proteolysis or alternative translation of the ERBB2 mRNA, exist in a subset of human breast tumors. t-ERBB2s lack the receptor extracellular domain targeted by therapeutic anti-ERBB2 antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates, including trastuzumab, trastuzumab-DM1 and pertuzumab. In clinical studies, expression of t-ERBB2 in breast tumors correlates with metastasis as well as trastuzumab resistance. By using a novel immuno-microarray method, we detect a significant t-ERBB2 fraction in 18 of 31 (58%) of immunohistochemistry (IHC)3+ ERBB2+ human tumor specimens, and further show that t-ERBB2 isoforms are phosphorylated in a subset of IHC3+ samples (10 of 31, 32%).